Geol 102 - 3a. minerals

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  1. 4 characteristics of minerals
    • 1.  naturally occuring
    • 2.  inorganic substance - no organic carbon
    • 3.  crystalline solid - atoms arranged in a particular structure (i.e. a cube)
    • 4.  SPECIFIC chemical composition (contains particular elements in a SET ratio of a particular formula)
  2. Van der waals bonding is typical of minerals whose structure is compose of....
    continuous chains and sheets.  very weak bond! weak attraction of electrons!
  3. Metallic bonding 4 characteristics for minerals
    • -sharing of electrons between ALL atoms in the solid
    • -shared electrons can flow between atoms
    • -results in metals being good electrical conductors
    • -found in metals
  4. crystal vs. crystal face
  5. polymorph
    a mineral that has the same chemical composition, but a different crystalline structure.

    -EG diamond and graphite (all c)
  6. conditions which cause minerals to form (3) are
    • 1. lower temperature of a liquid below its freezing point
    • -water - below 0 --> ice (a mineral)
    • -magma - below ~1000 ---> various metals
    • 2.  liquids evaporate from a solution forming a supersaturated solution which results in a precipitate
    • 3.  when atoms and ions in a solid become mobile and rearrange themselves at high temps, new minerals form with different crystal structures
  7. What determines which type of mineral will form?
    • 3 things:
    • -available elements
    • -ionic substitutions
    • -conditions of crystallization
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Geol 102 - 3a. minerals
2013-12-29 18:44:26
geology minerals 102 3a

Geology minerals
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