Geol 102 - 3a. minerals
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4 characteristics of minerals
- 1. naturally occuring
- 2. inorganic substance - no organic carbon
- 3. crystalline solid - atoms arranged in a particular structure (i.e. a cube)
- 4. SPECIFIC chemical composition (contains particular elements in a SET ratio of a particular formula)
Van der waals bonding is typical of minerals whose structure is compose of....
continuous chains and sheets. very weak bond! weak attraction of electrons!
Metallic bonding 4 characteristics for minerals
- -sharing of electrons between ALL atoms in the solid
- -shared electrons can flow between atoms
- -results in metals being good electrical conductors
- -found in metals
crystal vs. crystal face
a mineral that has the same chemical composition, but a different crystalline structure.
-EG diamond and graphite (all c)
conditions which cause minerals to form (3) are
- 1. lower temperature of a liquid below its freezing point
- -water - below 0 --> ice (a mineral)
- -magma - below ~1000 ---> various metals
- 2. liquids evaporate from a solution forming a supersaturated solution which results in a precipitate
- 3. when atoms and ions in a solid become mobile and rearrange themselves at high temps, new minerals form with different crystal structures
What determines which type of mineral will form?
- 3 things:
- -available elements
- -ionic substitutions
- -conditions of crystallization
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