Electroconvulsive therapy for depression

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Electroconvulsive therapy for depression
2014-01-02 05:46:02
Psychology ECT mood disorders camturnbull

AQA PSYB3 Mood disorders, ECT treatment for depression
Show Answers:

  1. In which cases is ECT used?
    For individuals with severe depression who do not respond to antidepressants
  2. What does ECT induce and how?
    Brain seizure by passing electricity through the brain
  3. How is the shock administered?
    After a muscle relaxant has been given, electrodes are placed unilaterally or bilaterally on the head
  4. How long does the seizure last?
    Around 1 minute
  5. How long is the typical treatment course and how many sessions would this involve?
    2-3 weeks involving 6-9 sessions
  6. What did Nobler et al find in 1994?
    ECT reduces blood flow to the temporal regions of the brain suggesting this is what helps alleviate the symptoms of depression
  7. What is the likely cause of the antidepressant effect of ECT?
    Changes in neurotransmitter levels
  8. What did Fink find in 2001?
    ECT is effective in alleviating the symptoms of depression for 50% of those treated
  9. What did Weiner and Coffey find in 1988?
    ECT significantly reduces severe depression when compared to placebo studies
  10. Give three side effects common for patients after the procedure
    • Nausea
    • Confusion
    • Headaches
  11. How does ECT affect the memory of patients?
    ECT is known to cause retrograde amnesia with patents often unable to recall events immediately prior to the treatment
  12. What ethical objections exist regarding ECT?
    • It is unethical to subject patents to painful procedures with harmful side effects and loss of memory sometimes against their will
    • Side effects also induce fear of the procedure in the patient
  13. In which circumstances is ECT the best course of treatment?
    When all other treatment methods have failed
  14. What are the rates of relapse after ECT?
  15. Why is a lack of knowledge into ECT an issue?
    We do not understand exactly how ECT works so may be unaware of more damaging consequences