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What is Consciousness?
Explain our understanding of Consciousness so far
What are Circadian Rhythms?
They occur on a 24-hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness
when people are at their daily peak in circadian rhythm...
Thinking is sharpest and memory most accurate
Define Night Owls and what type of people is this most likely?
Night Owles are ones that perform better at night and can stay up for longer peirods of time, This is usually younger people under 20
What type of people are usualy Morning Larks?
Older people, one theory is that when growing it is important to sleep because hormorns are released during sleep which help the growth, and older people no longer need these hormorns so they tend to sleep less,
The transition from Night Owl to Morning lark usually begains around ....
Measuring sleep: About every ___
minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages
How many stages of sleep are there
4 stages and REM sleep
Describe the Awake and Alert stage of sleep
During strong mental engagement, the brain exhibits low amplitude and fast, irregular beta waves. An awake person involved in a conversation shows beta activity.
Describe the Awake but relaxed stage
What happens during Stage 1 &2 of sleep cycle
During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves. A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity.
What is important to differate between Stages 1 and 2
Stage one where one might feel as though they are falling Stage two has spendles in the scans
what are hypnagogic sensations? and what stage does it usually occur?
Stage 1, and they are images resembling hallucinations—sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus
Describe sleep stages 3 & 4
Describe Stage 5 or REM sleep
After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves much like
- awake-aroused state.
A person during this sleep exhibits Rapid Eye Movements
- (REM) and reports vivid dreams.
With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and...
the duration of REM sleep increases
Sleep Theories of why we sleep Esplain the Sleep Protects Theory
Sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harm’s way.
Sleep Recuperates Theory
Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue.
Sleep Helps Remembering Theory
Sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories.
Sleep and Growth Theory
- During sleep, the pituitary gland releases growth
- hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less.
persistent problems falling or staying asleep
Less sleep, but
- inaccurate estimates of how much less
Sleeping pills and
- alcohol can aggravate the problem and cause:
frequent periods of interrupted breathing during sleep
What are Night terrors?
Occur during first few hours of Stage 4
Not nightmares (not during REM)
May sit up, walk around, talk incoherently
Doubling of heart rate and breathing, appear terrified
Seldom awaken or remember
What stage does Sleep walking (Somnambulism) and sleeptalking occur in?
Negative Emotional Content in dreams
8 out of 10 dreams have negative content
failure, being attacked, pursued, rejected, or struck with misfortune
- Contrary to our thinking, sexual dreams are sparse.
- Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10; and in women 1 in 30.
Dreams of Gender
Women dream of men and women equally; men dream more about men than women.
Wish Fulfillment theory
Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams provide a psychic safety valve to discharge unacceptable feelings. The dream’s manifest (apparent) content may also have symbolic meanings (latent content) that signify our unacceptable feelings.
Information Processing theory to why we dream
- Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s experiences
- in our memories.
Physiological Function answering why we dream
Dreams provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation to develop and preserve neural pathways. Neural networks of newborns are quickly developing; therefore, they need more sleep.
- Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random
- neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity.
Some researchers argue that we dream as a part of brain maturation and cognitive development.
Why do All dream researchers believe we need REM sleep?
- Whendeprived of REM sleep and then allowed to sleep, we show increased REM sleep called REM
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