agency/organization with responsibility to accredit colleges of mortuary
early Roman view of the afterlife which emphasizes the soul as the vital principle. The soul at death hovered around the place of burial and required constant attention of the descendants to be happy. Neglect would bring evil upon them.
human shaped; some early coffins were described as anthroidal shaped
Egyptian god of embalming said to be of human fom with the head of a jackal
approximately 1540-1745 were the sole agency permitted to embalm and perform anatomical dissections in the city of London
Forerunner of today's hearse; a hand stretcher on which the uncoffined body was carried to the grave
the practice of treating illness(es) by opening veins to release the "bad blood or humors"
generic term used in America to designate all burial receptacles as new variations of the coffin were being offered
created in 1800's London by the poor people as a means to afford funerals; costs were shared by others via weekly collections; were the forerunners of the industrial insurance
outer enclosure for caskets placed in the grave; originally intended to prevent grave robbery
burial Woolen Act of 1666
required that woolen cloth be substituted for linen in the shroud and lining of the coffin; was an attempt to shift the use of imported linen to the expanding paper industry of England and provided customers for the wool industry. Heavy fines were assessed for violations; not repealed until 1814.
jars made of alabaster, limestone, basalt, clay and other materials used by the ealy egyptians to store viscera of the deceased
casket manufactres Association
organization of the casket manufacturers intended to facilitate sharing of information (now known as the Casket and Funeral Supply Association)
term meaning Jewl box or container for something valuable; came into dominant use in patent literature for burial receptacles in 1890's in America
originated in ancient Rome as excavated cemeteries cut out of soft rock for the tombs of wealthy Christians; later became a place for religious rites to avoid persecution
cloth treated with melted wax or gummy matter and formely used especially for wrapping a dead body
Edwin Chadwich in the 1840's reported on unsanitary conditions in London created by intramural burials and the high cost of funerals
Charnel (Charnel House)
2. a building or chamber in which bodies or bones are deposited
circle of necessity
ancient Egyptian belief that the soul of the deceased would make a 3000 year journey and return to the body. Once reunited the whole man would live with the gods. This belief created the need for embalming.
utilitarian container designed to hold human remains
portable table on which the body was placed while the corpse cooler was in use; later became the embalming table when embalming was done in the home of deceased
type of ice chest placed over the torso of the body to slow down the process of decomposition prior to the funeral. it was typically a responsibility of the undertaker to provide ice and change the ice when it melted.
method of disposing of the dead body via fire; first attributed to the ancient Greeks.
English custom of Middle Ages which lasted until 19th century; perso nwho walked the street calling out the name of the deceased and asking people to pray for the soul of the departed
master of ceremonies and director of the ancient Roman funeral procession
disposition of the remains without any rites or ceremonies
traveling salesman who went from town to town selling their products. Early embalmers often obtained their products and training in this manner
a life-sized, waxen recreation (dummy) of the deceased; often used at state funeals because the body of the decased should be present for the funeral, but could no be preserved for that lenght of time. (Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum or Lenin in his tomb)
body and soul, composed of atoms, simply disintergrate at death so man in the afterlife is no different than before life. Afterlife expected only for heros, the nobility and the rich.
burial outside the walls of the city
fisk metallic coffins
patented in 1848 as form-fitting, airtight metallic coffin designed to improve ability to preserve the body; also had a glass plate to allow the viewing of the face
latin for torchlight procession; the word funeral is derived from this
in middle ages the wake also served as feast to welcome the principal heir to his new estate
funeral trolley car
a specially designed train car run on a city's trolley line to transport casket & mourners to cemeteries on the outskirts of the city
provided services of organizing and facilitating funeral details as an occupation; aka undertaker, different from furnishing undertaker.
provided supplies and merchandise (i.e. doorbadges, carriages, etc.) to funeral undertakers who were dealing directly with the public. Furnishings undertakers filled the role of the middle man.
a mechanical method to apply embalming solution by elevating a bowl of liquid attached by a tube
method to apply a continuous flow of embalming solution via manual manipulation of a handheld mechanism
today, a vehicle specially designed to transport casketed remains; derived from French word, herse; originally a staionary framework of wood to hold candles and decorations placed on the coffin; forerunner was a bier and hearse and bier wee used interchangeably until mid 19th century
Inviter to funerals
a specialty connected with funerals in colonial america; called personally upon those expected to attend funerals; often a municipal appointment
Jewish Funeral Director of America (JFDA)
chartered in 1928 to secure harmony in the profession amoung Jewish funeral directors and elevated the practice of the profession
Layers out of the dead
became an occupational specialty in many larger US cities by the end of the 18th century; predecessor to the undertaker
leagues of prayer
formed in the middle ages by lay persons to bury the dead and to pray for the souls of the faithful departed
the ancient roman goddess of corpses and funerals
head undertaker in ancient Rome; the secular role model for today's funeral director; conducted his business at the temple of Libitina where death were also registered
due to the fea of pre-mature burial, many early American coffins were designed and patented with a method to alert the living if someone was buried alive
ancient Viking custome; after deceased was placed in his boat with items necessary for the spirit to maintain the position held on earth, all was cremated and the pyre then covered with earth
religious/philosophicalbelief of the ancient Greeks and Oriental East emphasizing spirtual aspects of the afterlife and the hope of joining the cult god in a wonderful existence in eternity.
style "E" state coffin
cloth covered coffin designed for ex-president US Grant by Stein Coffin Co. in 1885 and helped elevate acceptance of cloth covered caskets
or embalmer to the trade; term orignated when some of the original graduates of early embalming courses gave up regular employment with a single firm to provide embalming service to firms which had no trained embalmer
long hollow tube patented in 1868 by Samuel Rogers of Philadelphia; used by embalmers to inject fluids into cavitites and remove excess liquids
original term applied those whose occupation included responsibility to organize and facilitate funeral activities; used interchangeably (by some) for the term funeral director
name given to the vehicle used by undertakers to transport the necessary mortuary paraphernalia to the homes where funerals were typically held. These vehicles sometimes had apperance similar to hearse, but were much less ornate.
undertakers mutual protective association
first formal organization of undertakers; originated in Philadelphia, January 1864
University Mortuary Science Education Association
organization of college & university based funeral service programs
originated as an ancient Hebrew practice, family and friends sit with the deceased as a precaution agaist premature burial; continued as an act of peity in Middle ages (aka vigil for the dead)
Crane and Breed
important in the introduction and developement of early funeral transportation
J. Anthony Gaussardia
he patented a process of embalming involving the injection of an arsenic-alcohol mixture
a long pleated arrangement of linen worn by a window during the Middle Ages. The arrangement resembled a beard.
James A. Gray
the individual to receive the first American patent on a metallic coffin in 1836
Robert Frederick and C.A. Trump
they received one of the first patents for a corpse cooler/cooling board during the 19th Century
John L. Dillon
started one of the first coffin shop/warehouses in New York City
Auguste Renouard; Dr. Richard Harlan; Joseph H. Clarke; A Johnson Dodge
influential individuals in the developement of mortuary school and education in the 19th Century
considered an innovator in the field of Restorative Art