70's Darby

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  1. election 1968
    At the end of a difficult year, the presidential election of 1968 was held. Republican candidate Richard Nixon appealed to a nation tired of violence and unrest. Nixon vowed he would end the Vietnam War and win peace. Democratic nominee, Hubert Humphrey, Johnson's vice president, seemed a continuation of the old politics. In the end, Richard Nixon won.
  2. Herbert Humphrey
    • On June 5, 1968, Robert Kennedy was shot fatally, and the Democratic ticket went to this man
    • The democratic nominee for the presidency in the election of 1968. He was LBJ's vice president, and was supportive of his Vietnam policies. This support split the Democratic party, allowing Nixon to win the election for the Republicans.
  3. Richard Nixon
    37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. Watergate Scandal.
  4. National Democratic Convention '68
    Candidates were shouted down and the chaos was televised so that people saw that the Republicans were the more reliable choice. There was violence inside and out of the democratic convention and the anti-war protesters were breaking store windows. At one point, Mayor Daly told the police to get rid of the protestors in any way possible and the police end up beating kids.In the end, Humphrey secures the nomination and decimates the anti-war movement because this is what they had fought so hard against, believing that Humphrey would continue Johnson's war. Many believe that the televised conference swayed the voting public for Nixon (who won the presidency).
  5. Pigasus
    Yippee nominee for president (making fun of the candidates that were actually running for President... no better than pigs)
  6. Yippie
    Originally part of the SDS, the Yippies (Youth International Party) belived in many of the same leftist ideals. The Yippies came to represent the violent, more reckless side to the leftist movement. believed that street violence was the only means of changing government and cilvil organizations.
  7. Spiro Agnew
    Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
  8. silent majority
    label nixon gave to middle-class americans who supported him, obeyed the laws, and wanted "peace with honor" in vietnam, he contrasted this group with students and civil rights activists who disrupted the country with protests in the late 1960s and early 1970s
  9. Nixon foreign policies
    • 1. Vietnam - Vietnamization, Parris Peace Accords, 
    • 2. Detente-USSR Visit, SALT I-China Visit, open relations, security council (people's republic)
    • 3. Third WorldAllende - ChileNixon Doctrine - help allies but not assume full responsiblity 
    • 4. Mid EastYom Kippur War - US sends in troops to support IsraelOPEC and Arab Oil Embargo as a result - severe affect on US economy
  10. George Wallace
    Was the racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot.
  11. American independent party
    Grew out of the civil rights revolution in the 1960s and led by George Wallace; primary focus was maintaining racial segregation.

    1968-1972; Grew from civil rights revolution in 1960s; Reaction to urban, racial unrest & rioting in mid-1960s; George Wallace; Law & order; States should control civil rights; maintain racial segregation; reduce government power in Washington; Repeal much of Great Society's War on Poverty; All-out victory in Vietnam; Won 46 electoral votes; Made both Republicans & Democrats toughen their law-and-order stands; Gave voice to a "white backlash" against integration; Anti-Washington message adopted by other conservatives
  12. Strict constructionist
    way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
  13. Détente
    This was a type of foreign policy adopted both by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. which focused on easing relations between the two and dropping the confrontational rivalry for the time being. This new policy allowed for tensions between the two powers to ease and paved the way for such talks such as SALT I & II.
  14. HR Halderman
    chief of staff to President Nixon who ordered the CIA and FBI not to probe too deeply into the Watergate break-in; he helped provide money to keep the burglars quiet and was later sentenced to prison for his role in Watergate.
  15. Henry kissinger
    • SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY- the action of a third party in serving as an intermediary between principals in a dispute.
    • Nixon's National Security Adviser 

    b. 1923. Awarded 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end Vietnam War and withdrawing American forces. Heavily involved in South American politics as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State. Condoned covert tactics to prevent communism and facism from spreading throughout South America.
  16. John D. Ehrlichman
    He was counsel and Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Richard Nixon. He was a key figure in events leading to the Watergate first break-in and the ensuing Watergate scandal, for which he was convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice and perjury. He served a year and a half in prison for his crimes.
  17. Water gate tapes
    Tapes which proved Nixon was involved in the Watergate scandal. Although he withheld them at first, the Supreme Court made Nixon turn over these recordings of the plans for the cover-up of the scandal.
  18. Watergate scandal
    1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President (CREEP) to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security guard foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committee Headquarters, exposing the scandal.
  19. Neil Armstrong
    1st person to walk on the moon; U.S. Apollo 11; July, 1969; his famous words - "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
  20. Apollo 11
    Apollo 11the first manned mission to land on the Moon. It was the fifth human spaceflight of Project Apollo and the third human voyage to the Moon. It was also the second all-veteran crew in manned spaceflight history. Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the Moon, while Collins orbited above.
  21. Edwin Aldrin
    part of the Apollo 11 mission
  22. Nixon visits China
    February 21, 1972- Nixon visited for a week to meet with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung for improved relations with China, Called "ping-pong diplomacy" because Nixon played ping pong with Mao during his visit. Nixon agreed to support China's admission to the United Nations.
  23. SALT
    Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.

    Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
  24. Warren Burger
    Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1969 to 1986, he was responsisble for bringing the Court somewhat back to the right after the Earl Warren years. He presided over major cases involving abortion, affirmative action, the death penalty, and school desegregation

    chief justice of the supreme court although considered more conservative in leadership than earl warren his court uphelp school busing a woman's right to an abortion and ordered nixon to surrender the watergate tapes
  25. pentagon papers
    During the Vietnam War, Daniel Ellsberg leaked confidential information to the press. These Pentagon Papers revealed that the government had kept information about the war from Congress and the public. At first Nixon tried to block New York Times from publishing the information, but Congress ruled that the papers have the constitutional right to publish any information they have. The Pentagon Papers caused Americans to believe that the U.S. may lose the War in Vietnam.
  26. Daniel Ellsberg
    He was a former employee of the Defense Department and gave the New York Times the "Pentagon Paper" which was information on how the US government got involved in Vietnam. Very embarrassing to the government.
  27. Plumbers
    Nixon's aides had authorized a burglary of the files of Dr. Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist; so great was the determination to destroy the man who had "leaked" the Pentagon Papers; this was the most notorious exploit of the White House "plumbers unit" created to plug up leaks of confidential information
  28. Stagflation
    name given the economic condition throughout most of the 1970s in which prices rose rapidly (inflation) but without economic growth (stagnation). Unemployment rose along with inflation. In large part, these conditions were the economic consequences of rising oil prices.
  29. 1972 election
    President Nixon ran for a second term; Watergate was not a serious issue-The Democrats chose stronly antiwar Senator George McGovern of South Dakota-McGovern dropped his running mate Senator Thomas Eagleton when it was revealed that he had been treated for depression-Nixon won every contest except Massachusetts and the District of Columbia
  30. George McGovern
    This anti-war South Dakota Senator lost a landslide election to Nixon in 1972, Democrat running against Nixon on antiwar platform in 1972 election, A Senator from South Dakota who ran for President in 1972 on the Democrat ticket. His promise was to pull the remaining American troops out of Vietnam in ninety days which earned him the support of the Anti-war party, and the working-class supported him, also. He lost however to Nixon.
  31. Sargent Shiver
    helped establish the peace corps to provide volunteer assistance to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  32. 26th amendment
    changed voting age to 18
  33. John Mitchell
    Nixon's first attorney general and his close friend and adviser; many people believe he ordered the Watergate break-in. He participated in the cover-up and served nineteen months in prison for his role.
  34. Robert Woodward  and Carl Bernstein
    Washington Post  reporters Robert Woodward  and Carl Bernstein  help uncover much of the incident. Their secret source Deep Throat was revealed in 2005 to be Dep. Dir of FBI William Felt
  35. Ervin committee
    the senate created a committee to look into any illegal improper or unethical activities after the Watergate scandal. Nixon tried to cover up the scandal even more
  36. 25th amendment
    1967If the president dies, resigns, or is impeached, the VP will become president.If the VP office is vacant, the president will nominate a VP, who will take office after a majority vote in House and Senate.If the president is disable, the VP will serve for him.Procedure for disqualifying or requalifying president established.
  37. Gerald Ford
    president 1974-77, In 1973, President Richard Nixon appointed Ford to replace Spiro Agnew, who resigned his position as vice president before pleading no contest to charges of bribery and tax evasion. The following year, the former House minority leader became the 38th U.S. president, succeeding Nixon who faced impeachment proceedings for his involvement in the Watergate scandal.
  38. Yom Kippur war
    October 6, 1973 on Yom Kippur- the Syrians and Egyptians launched a surprise attack on Israel in an attempt to recover the lands lost in the Six-Day war or 1967. Nixon ordered US nuclear forces on alert and airlifted $2 billion in arms to Israel to stem their retreat
  39. Saturday night massacre
    Name given to an incident in which Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor who was relentlessly investigating Watergate, (October 1973)Richardson refused and resigned along with his deputy, who also refused to carry out Nixon's order. A subordinate then fired Cox. The incident created a firestorm of protest in the country. (Name of incident)
  40. smoking gun
    evidence that Nixon had participated in the Watergate cover-up, which led to certain impeachment, This was something caught on a tape regarding Nixon talking with Haldeman about the coverup, Nixon's tapes which revealed his connection to the Watergate break in, a reference to an object or fact that serves as conclusive evidence of a crime or similar act
  41. US vs Nixon
    The court rejected Richard Nixon's claim to an absolutely unqualified privilege against any judicial process

    ordered Nixon to hand over Watergate tapes
  42. affirmative action
    programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities
  43. Bakke v Univ of California
    1978, reverse discrimination. US court case in which Bakke was denied to University of California Medical School twice to people less qualified based on race. Case determined that affirmative action is legal as long as filling quotas is not used.
  44. reverse discrimination
    using race or sex to give preferential treatment to some people
  45. title IX
    Provision of the 1972 Education Amendments that prohibited gender discrimination and opened sports and other arenas to women
  46. Roe v Wade
    Abortion ruled legal throughout nation in the 1st trimester for any reason, the 2nd with certain justification, and the 3rd only with a signed court order
  47. Pardon of Richard Nixon
    The pardon of Richard Nixon, which occurred in 1974, was US history's most significant presidential pardon. Given by Gerald Ford, the President at that point in time, the pardon of Richard Nixon removed all punishment towards Richard Nixon as a result of Nixon's attempt to steal information from the Democratic Party at Watergate. Richard Nixon was impeached as a result of the Watergate incident, although he did not have to serve any time in prison as a result of this pardon. This is significant as this was the first and only pardon of a presidential impeachment.
  48. Nelson Rockefeller
    VP under Ford
  49. freedom of information act
    the FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT was passed in 1966 and later strengthened after Watergate. it required government agencies to provide proof of why items were classified as secret and to provide information not labeled secret for public use. After 1975, FBI files that had been exempt became available to the public.
  50. "Dirty Tricks"
    the committee to re-elect the president used dirty tricks such as using funds from the government to pay for and cover up the infiltrating of opposition groups and misrepresent them to undermine the effectiveness of the opposition
  51. privacy act of 1974
    allowed citizens the right to examine gov’t agency files collected on them
  52. Campaign finance reform
    Legislation aimed at placing limits on political candidates accepting money and gifts from individuals and special interest groups
  53. War Powers Act of 1973
    This act stated that the president must report to Congress within 2 days of putting troops in danger in a foreign country, and there would be a 60 to 90 day limit for over seas troop presence.
  54. Muammar el-Qaddafi
    has been the leader of Libya since 1969. His foreign policy was anti-Western and anti-Israel. In 1970 he closed U.S. and British military bases and expelled Italians and Jews. He banned alcoholic beverages and gambling and in 1973 nationalized the oil industry. He made unsuccessful attempts to unify Libya with other countries. His government was repeatedly linked with terrorist incidents in Europe and elsewhere, and he supported groups trying to overthrow neighboring governments. He narrowly escaped death in 1986 when U.S. planes bombed sites in Libya, including his own residence.
  55. OPEC
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
  56. election of 1976
    Democratic Governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia defeated Gerald Ford, who was a colorless and uninspiring campaigner.
  57. Walter Mondale
    He was the vice president of Carter and when he won the democratic nomination he was defeated by a landslide by Reagan. He was the first presidential candidate to have a woman vice president, Geraldine Ferraro.
  58. pork barrel
    a government appropriation, bill, or policy that supplies funds for local improvements designed to ingratiate legislators with their constituents.
  59. PAC
    political action committees were created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create a PAC and register it with the Federal Election Commission (FEC), which will meticulously monitor the PAC's expenditures. POLITICAL.
  60. trade deficit
    During Reagan's presidency...the national debt rose from around $900 billion to about $2.7 trillion. Due to the tax cuts that were to help stimulate investments, the US trade deficit reached a staggering $150 billion a year.
  61. trade deficit definition
    the amount by which the cost of a country's imports exceeds the value of its exports.
  62. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980
    The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 was one of the most comprehensive conservation acts in American history, setting aside more wild country than had been preserved anywhere in the world—104 million acres of new national parks, wildlife refuges, and other public lands. While creating an unparalleled system of federal reserves protecting wildlife, fish, and wilderness, the legislation also allowed for some development of natural resources and the commercial use of vast areas of the North Slope—leaving available for development 95 percent of Alaska’s most promising oil-bearing lands.
  63. three miles island
    (March 28, 1979) (Carter) A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
  64. Foreign Policies of Jimmy Carter
    Human Rights Push; Panama Canal (gave control to Panama); Detenté; Recognizes Peoples Republic of China; Tensions with USSR because of invasion of Afghanistan; SALT II; Iran Hostage Crisis (53 hostages for 444 days); Camp David Accords
  65. Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter
    Interest rates go up; taxpayers revolt in CA - proposition 13 (permanently lowered property taxes); "National malaise" - moral and spiritual crisis; By 1980, approval rating 23%.
  66. Policies of Gerald Ford
    (Rep) Domestic - Pardon of Nixon; more conservative; flight inflation (problem in 60s/70s); Whip Inflation Now (WIN).
  67. Foreign policies of Ford
    Foreign - Saigon falls (1975); Cambodia falls, Mayaquez incident.
  68. Shah Mohammad Pahlavi
    Pahlavi became Shah in 1941, when the allies of WWII forced the abdication of his father; Communist and Nationalist movements created unrest and tension during the early years of his reign; Shah distributed royal lands to poverty-stricken farmers; known for both social and economic reform in Iran; with the abundance of oil-drinking machines, Pahlavi became a powerful world leader, and the main military power in the Middle East; Muslims and the Ayatollah forced the Shah and his family into exile in 1979
  69. iranian revolution
    (1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader, the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US, Many Iranians opposed Reza Shah Pahlavi, there was also a hatred of Westernization. There was a revival in Islam, and Ayatollah Khomeini soon emerged as the religious opposition to the Shah. He organized demonstrations and riots, and the Shah eventually left. Khomeini then seized power in Iran.
  70. Ayatollah Khomeini
    An Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution who saw the overthrow of the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, he became the country's Supreme Leader — a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation — until his death. He was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran hostage crisis and has been criticized violations of human rights of Iranians.
  71. Common market
    an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members

    free trade area
  72. PLO
    Palestinian Liberation Organization; formed in 1964 with the purpose of creating a homeland for Palestinians in Israel
  73. Anwar sadat
    President of Egypt; Carteer invited Sadat and Israel's Menachem Begin to a conference at Camp David; the two signed an agreement that served as a step toward peace between Egypt and Israel.
  74. Edward Kennedy
    He is a Senator from Massachusetts and the last of the Kennedy brothers. In 1979, he said that he was going to challenge Carter for the Presidency, but an incident back in '69 with a car crash, handicapped his decision.
  75. Menachem Begin
    Leader of Israel who signed a peace treaty with Egypt at the Camp David Accords, which had Israel withdrawing from Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip and returning the land to Egypt
  76. camp David accords
    The Camp David Accords were the peace accords signed by Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat to finally end the Israeli-Egyptian disputes. The achievement by Carter is considered his greatest achievement in office.
  77. Iran hostage issue
    incident in which Iranian radicals, with government support, seized 52 Americans from the US embassy and held them for 444 days; ostensibly demanding the return of the deposed Shah to stand trial, the fundamentalist clerics behind the seizure also hoped to punish the United States for other perceived past wrongs.
  78. Sandinistas
    Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
  79. Afghanistan issue
    In December 1979, Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan; this action ended a decade of improving US-Soviet relations. Carter reacted by (1) placing an embargo on grain exports and the sale of high technology to the Soviet Union and (2) boycotting the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.
  80. Ronald Reagan
    By this time, the Republican party was ready to challenge the Democrat's hold on the White House. As Americans were not pleased with Jimmy Carter's administration,and the "ABC" (Anybody but Carter) movement gained steam. On the democratic side, Carter battled out the primary elections with Edward Kennedy of Massachusetts, the last of the Kennedy brothers. Carter won because Kennedy was involved in an automobile accident where his car plunged off a bridge and he escaped but a young woman assistant was drowned. The Republican candidate was of course Ronald Reagan who won the election.
  81. Olympic Boycott of 1980
    As a result of the Afghanistan invasion in 1979, an American boycott was declared against the 1980 summer Olympics held in Moscow
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70's Darby
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