Autonomic Nervous System
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What kind of involuntary activities does the autonomic nervous system control?
- Cardiovascular responses
- Endocrine secretion
- Gastrointestinal motility and secretion
- Reproductive and urogenital control
What are the two divisions of the ANS?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
Describe the structure of the fibres of the sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system has short finely myelinated pre-ganglionic fibres that leave with motor roots of the spinal nerves and long post-ganglionic fibres that pass to organs.
What is an advantage of the structure of the fibres of the sympathetic nervous system?
The short pre-ganglionic fibres can branch so they can make contact with multiple fibres that run out to the end organs; one neurone stimulated in the spinal chord can result in changes in the activity of multiple organs. This is referred to as MASS DISCHARGE and it means you can induce a globalised response in the animal.
What is a modified component of the sympathetic nervous system?
The adrenal gland. Cells that fibres make contact with are called chromaffin cells, which are modified neurones which release their contents into the peripheral bloodstream, meaning the neurotransmitter acts as a hormone which can influence multiple organ systems.
What are the functions of the SNS?
The 4 F's - fight, flight, fear and fucking
Describe the structure of the fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system has long finely myelinated pre-ganglionic fibres that leave with the cranial nerves and short non-myelinated post-ganglionic fibres that pass to organs
The structure of the PNS fibres (long then short) means you have more ______ control?
What are the functions of the PNS?
Rest and digest
What is the name of the system of neurones contained within the gut?
The enteric nervous system
What are the two plexuses that make up the enteric nervous system and where are they located?
- Myenteric plexus - located between the outer longitudinal muscle and inner circular muscle
- Submucosal plexus - located between the inner circular muscle and epithelium
What is the effect of a) parasympathetic and b) sympathetic stimulation on the enteric nervous system?
- a) increase in the activity of the enteric nervous system
- b) decrease in the activity of the enteric nervous system
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