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When and why were criminal statistics first recorded in England
During the late 1700s in order to gauge the moral health of the country
When were judicial stats first compiled?
How are judicial stats compiled?
Using the figure of crimes known to police
In which publication are judicial stats recorded?
The home office publication, 'Criminal Statistics'
State 4 of Wolfgang's uses for official stats, proposed in 1971
- To measure the volume of crime
- To measure the effectiveness of preventative measures
- To detect changes in the rates of crime
- To provide data for policy decisions
Why are official stats seen as unreliable?
Different agencies and policing areas record crime differently (some crimes not recorded)
What is the Dark Figure and which two issues contribute to it the most?
- The total amount of crime that does not appear within the official stats
- Police not recording a crime
- Victims not recording a crime
In 1992, what did Hollin claim the percentage of actual crime reported by official stats was?
Give three reasons that might mean crime is not reported by the victim
- Mistrust of police
- Public sees crime as too trivial
- Victim afraid of reprisal
- Inconvenient or cannot be bothered
- Perp is a friend of the victim
Give three reasons that might mean crime is not recorded by police
- Lack of evidence
- One of several similar offences
- Police see crime as too trivial
- Not a policing priority
- Insufficient time to complete the paperwork
What did Hood and Sparks suggest about the Police recording of crime in 1970?
Only 2/3 of crimes reported to the police were recorded in police files
What shortfalls in police recording were found by Hough and Mayhew in 1985?
- 75% of reported robbery recorded
- 27% of bicycle theft recorded
- 100% of sexual offences, thefts of a motor vehicle and thefts in a dwelling
What do Hough and Mayhew's findings suggest?
Police have considerable discretion over the recording of crime
What was the aim of the Farrington and Downs study of 1984?
To find out why more crimes occurred in Nottinghamshire (according to official stats for 1981) than Staffordshire and Leicestershire
What was the method of the Farrington and Downs study of 1984?
- Random sample of crime reports for each area recorded
- Police recording practices examined
What were the results of the Farrington and Downs study of 1984?
- Individuals detained for one offence also admitted to others of which the police were unaware
- The Nottinghamshire police were more likely to record property offences of £10 or less (other counties may have considered them too trivial)
What can be concluded from the Farrington and Downs study of 1984?
- A major reason for the increase in the crime figures for Nottinghamshire was the wait in which the police force recorded the amount of crime occurring
- Crime rates may be influenced by the perception of seriousness that each criminal act is given