Lessons learned describe the successes and failures of the project and should never be used to place blame.
Name the formula for TCPI.
The formula is TCPI = (BAC - EV) / (BAC - AC).
Who is typically responsible for authoring the project charter?
The project manager
Name the process group in which stakeholders have the least amount of influence.
What type of estimating technique rolls up costs starting from the work package level?
Which project process group involves measuring the work of the project and making sure project team members stay on task and on schedule?
Monitoring and Controlling
What is the final, approved schedule that will be used to monitor and track all the work of the project?
What are the two keys to a successful rewards and recognition program?
That rewards and recognition are applied consistently and that the reward or recognition is appropriate for the level of effort expended or the results achieved
What is the purpose of the project charter?
The project charter normally approves the project and authorizes it to begin.
What important project meeting is held at the beginning of the Executing process group?
The project kickoff
In which project process group is the project charter document created?
PV (planned value) is the cost of work that has been authorized and budgeted for a work component during a given timeframe. This is a figure used in EVM formulas and is also referred to as budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS).
What chart tracks tasks, resource requirements, and quantity of resources?
Responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)
What is the longest path through a network diagram?
Describe make-or-buy analysis.
This technique determines whether it is more cost effective to produce the resources in-house (or use existing human resources within the organization) or procure them from an outside vendor.
What type of contract is riskiest to the buyer?
Name the two types of failure costs.
Internal failure costs and external failure costs
What two things does the project sponsor put into motion at the signing of the project charter?
Authorizes the project and authorizes the use of resources
State the purpose for performing quality control.
This involves monitoring work results to determine whether they comply with the standards set out in the quality management plan.
Name the three constraints you should be aware of in human resource planning.
Labor union agreements, organizational structure, and economic conditions
Who is ultimately responsible for the project's outcome?
The project manager
An activity that cannot start until its predecessor has concluded is said to have what type of logical relationship?
What type of change request is implemented to correct or replace components that are substandard or are malfunctioning?
Name the estimating technique that bases estimates on past projects of similar size and scope.
What is the first step in examining a scope deviation request?
Identify the cause.
Name the steps in validating a project.
Validate the business case, and then identify and analyze stakeholders.
What is the term for a leftover risk after a risk event has occurred or that remains after risk responses have been planned?
Describe post-mortem analysis.
Post-mortem analysis is conducted for any project that is canceled or ends prematurely.
What is the lowest level of the WBS?
The work package
A well-managed change control process can help stop this phenomenon.
This process formally reviews the project at specific points such as milestone completion or phase completion to determine whether the project should proceed.
Phase gate approvals
Name the three types of matrix organizations.
Strong, weak, and balanced
Name four types of documents you could use during the vendor solicitation process.
RFI, RFP, RFQ, and RFB (or IFB)
Name the three common causes of variance.
Random variances, known or predictable variances, and variances always present in the process
What costs are included in AC?
Direct and indirect costs
What is it called when you apply more resources to a project in order to complete it more quickly?
Crashing the project
This funding allocation is set aside by the management team to cover future expenses on the project that can't be planned for.
Name the formula for EAC.
The formula is EAC = AC + ETC.
Name the traits that define a project.
It's temporary in nature and delivers a unique product, service, or result.
Name the project process group that begins when the project charter is approved.
This procurement document details the deliverables the vendor must provide, the characteristics of the deliverables, and other information similar to the scope statement.
Statement of work (SOW)
Name the formula to calculate the lines of communication.
The formula is n (n - 1) / 2.
This estimating technique calculates the expected value based on the most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic estimates.
Describe what occurs when performing administrative closure procedures.
Project documents are gathered and centralized, a post-project review is performed, and the final project closeout report is created.
Consensus on a WBS should be obtained from which group?
These help you determine whether the project is progressing as planned.
Key performance indicators (KPIs)
Name the components of the communication exchange model.
What is the term for a symptom that means a risk event is about to occur?
Task estimating by using people who are familiar with the tasks is called what?
What event should you coordinate after completing the project charter and before beginning the scope statement?
The project kickoff meeting
What is the most often used logical relationship?
Name the PMI standard that denotes all of the institute's project management wisdom.
A Guide to the PMBOK
A grouping of projects that are working toward a common goal is called what?
What describes each of the deliverables and their components, the code of accounts identifier, estimates, resources, and criteria for acceptance?
The WBS dictionary
Name the process group that obtains sign-off of a successful project.
Define how a project ends through starvation.
Starvation happens when the project resources are cut off from the project.
Who is responsible for developing the project plan?
The project manager
What type of change request is implemented to help reduce the probability of a negative risk event?
What are the three types of costs associated with quality?
Prevention, appraisal, and failure
Describe some examples of the environmental factors you should consider during human resource planning.
Organizational factors, technical factors, personnel policies, location and logistics, and interpersonal factors
AC (actual cost) is the actual cost of completing the work component in a given time period. This is a figure used in EVM formulas.
Describe the purpose of verifying scope.
Verifying scope formally accepts the completed deliverables and obtains sign-off on the deliverables from the stakeholders, indicating they are satisfactory and that they meet stakeholders' expectations.
Three-point estimates use which three estimates to calculate the average estimate?
Most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic
Which process collects documents and reports on project baseline data?
Some companies have a centralized area where all formal project activities take place. What is this area called?
Project management office (PMO)
What project management function occupies most of a project manager's time and effort?
This system assures the project doesn't deviate from the planned requirements.
Change control system
Which element of the scope statement documents the process and criteria you'll use to determine whether deliverables are complete and satisfactory?
Success criteria, also known as acceptance criteria
Name the four elements or organizational governance used during the Executing process group.
Standards compliance, internal process compliance, decision oversight, and phase gate approval
Name three types of change requests that occur during the Monitoring and Controlling processes.
Corrective actions, preventive actions, and defect repairs
Which project process group involves performing the work of the project?
Name the three common causes of conflict according to CompTIA.
Competing resource demands, expert judgment, and varying work styles
Which chart type is useful for showing the dependency relationships between tasks?
Placing activities into a logical sequence and determining their dependencies is called what?
State the purpose of the change request log.
The change request log records change requests and their dispositions. It should include an identifying number, date, description, requestor, status, and final disposition.
Name the purpose for archiving project documents.
Archiving helps you produce proof the project was accepted and signed off, and it gives others access to the project documents so they can be used as a reference on future projects.
Name the steps to preproject setup.
Identify the project, validate the project, write the project charter, and obtain the approval of the project charter.
Float is the difference in length of time between the early start and late start (or the early finish and late finish) of an activity on the project.
What plan documents when and how human resources will be added to and released from the project team?
Staffing management plan
Describe product verification.
Product verification is performed in the Close Procurements process and determines whether the work was completed accurately and satisfactorily.
Name the formula for CPI.
The formula is CPI = EV / AC.
Explain the purpose for the Distribute Information process.
This process is concerned with getting stakeholders the information about the project in a timely manner. This is accomplished using status reports, project meetings, review meetings, and so on.
Name the term that describes processes that are repeated.
What type of requirement describes the elements required for a business process?
Name the purpose of the scope management plan.
It documents the procedures for preparing the project scope statement, in other words, the WBS; defines how the deliverables will be verified; and describes the process for controlling scope change requests.
Name the stages of team development.
Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
Name four types of project endings.
Addition, starvation, integration, and extinction
Describe some examples of informal communications.
Phone calls, emails, hallway conversations, and impromptu meetings
Why is project sign-off important?
Sign-off signals the acceptance of the final product, service, or result of the project and turns the product over to the organization.
What is typically the last document written at the conclusion of a project?
The project close report, which serves as a final project status report
Describe organizational planning.
Organizational planning is the process of addressing the factors that may impact how you manage your project team; it defines roles and responsibilities for project team members, identifies how the team will be organized, and documents the staffing management plan.
What is the most important activity a project manager can perform on any project?
Name the positive risk response strategies.
Exploit, share, enhance, and accept
Name the formula for CV.
The formula is CV = EV - AC.
This component of the scope statement documents the deliverables or items that will not be included in the project.
Before assembling the project team, what needs must the project manager assess first?
Skills required by team members
Name the two significant processes you'll perform within the human resources-planning process.
Organizational planning and staff acquisition
What type of scheduling chart represents task durations on a timeline and typically displays dependencies?
What type of requirement indicates a system process?
Name the two risk analysis techniques.
Qualitative risk analysis and quantitative risk analysis
Name the formula for SV.
The formula is SV = EV - PV
Name the types of barriers a project manager might face when managing teams.
Time zones, language and communication, cultural, hierarchical, and technological
Define how a project ends through extinction.
Extinction occurs when the project has been completed and accepted by the stakeholders.
Describe some examples of formal communications.
Team status meetings, kickoff meetings, written status reports, and team-building sessions
Name the types of resources planned for in the resource-planning process.
Human, equipment, and material
This process is where you'll choose the team members or organizations who will work on the project.
What document represents the decomposition of the deliverables and work required for a project?
Work breakdown structure
What are the triple constraints according to CompTIA?
Scope, time, and quality
Define the purpose for the Close Procurements process.
Close Procurements is the process of completing and settling the terms of the contract and documenting acceptance.
What two things are most important when releasing team members from the project?
Communicating with both the team member and their functional manager and providing the team member with a final performance appraisal
Name the major elements of a scope document.
Product description, key deliverables, success and acceptance criteria, key performance indicators, exclusions, assumptions, and constraints
Name the two types of schedule formats used on most projects.
Gantt charts and milestone charts
Name three important purposes for the project kickoff meeting.
To provide a project overview, to review stakeholder expectations, and to review roles and responsibilities
This is the term for a risk that occurs as a result of the original risk event or as a direct result of implementing a risk response.
Define how a project ends through integration.
Integration occurs when the resources of the project are distributed to other areas in the organization or assigned to other projects.
Name the estimating technique that is a quantitatively based estimating method.
Which should come first, the project scope or the project charter?
The project charter
This is the total approved and expected cost for the project.
Name the formula for SPI.
The formula is SPI = EV / PV.
Name the process group where project risk is the lowest.
Name the negative risk response strategies.
Avoid, transfer, mitigate, and accept
This quality-planning technique compares and measures similar activities.
Name the six conflict resolution techniques
Smoothing, forcing, compromise, confronting, avoiding, and negotiating
EV (earned value) is the value of the work completed to date as it compares to the budgeted amount (PV). This is a figure used in EVM formulas and is also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).
Describe fast tracking.
Fast tracking is beginning two tasks at the same time that were previously scheduled to begin sequentially.
Performing this function on deliverables results in the WBS.
Define how a project ends through addition.
Addition happens when projects evolve into ongoing operations.
Describe a post-project review.
The post-project review is held at the end of the project, and its primary purpose is to collect lessons learned.
What formal document contains all of the plans created during the project process group?
Project management plan
What funding allocation is an amount of money set aside to deal with the cost of possible adverse events?
Name the nine Knowledge Areas outlined in the PMBOK Guide.
Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Human Resources, Communications, Risk, Procurement, and Integration Management
What document is where you'll define the information needs for the project stakeholders including when, how, what format, and frequency?
Name the activities required to properly manage stakeholder expectations.
This involves communicating, resolving issues, improving project performance by implementing change requests, and managing concerns.
Name the three categories of contracts.
Fixed price, cost reimbursable, and time and materials
Name the formula for VAC.
The formula is VAC = BAC - EAC.
What is a major characteristic of a matrix organization?
Matrix organizations are usually organized along department lines, but the project manager is responsible for assigning all project tasks to project team members.
ETC is estimate to complete and is the forecast of the cost of all the remaining project work. This figure is usually provided by the project team members.
Name the steps in validating a business case.
Feasibility study, justification, and alignment to the strategic plan
This type of change request brings the work of the project into alignment with the project plan.
Describe the purpose for monitoring and controlling risks.
Monitoring and controlling risk involves implementing the risk response plan, tracking and monitoring identified risks, and identifying and responding to new risks as they occur.
What entity is responsible for reviewing change requests and approving, denying, or delaying their implementation?