Appendicular Skeleton

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rose11
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254914
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Appendicular Skeleton
Updated:
2014-01-04 19:50:54
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Anatomy
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About the appendicular skeleton
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  1. Appendicular Skeleton
    Composed of 126 bones of the limbs and the pectoral and pelvic girdles which attach the limbs to the axial skeleton.
  2. Bones of shoulder girdle
  3. Shoulder girdle
    Consist of two bones: clavicle and scapula
  4. Pectoral girdle
    Consist of two bones: clavicle and scapula
  5. Clavicle
    • or collorbone
    • slender,doubly curved bone
    • attaches to the manubrium of the sternum at its medial or sternal end and attaches to the scapula latterally where it helps to form the shoulder joint
    • the clavicle acts as a brace to hold the arm away from the top of the thorax and helps prevent shoulder dislocation
    • when clavicle is broken the whole shoulder regoin caves in medially which shows how important its bracing function is
  6. Scapulae
    • or shoulder blades
    • are trianglular and are commonly called"wings" because they flare when we move our arms posteriorly
    • has a flattened body with two important processes: Acromion and coraciod
    • three borders: superior, medial, lateral
    • three angles: superior, inferior, lateral
  7. Acromion Process
    • which is the enlargedend of the spine of the scapula
    • connects with the clavicle latterally at the at the acromioclavicular joint
  8. Coraciod process
    • beaklike
    • pionts over the op of the shoulder and anchors some of the muscles of the arm
  9. Suprascapular notch
    • medial to the coraciod process
    • which serves as a nerve passageway
  10. Gleniod cavity
    a shallow socket that recieves the head of the arm bone is in the lateral angle
  11. Shoulder girdle is very light and allows  the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement due to the following factors:
    • Each shoulder girdle ataches to the axial skeleton at only one piont
    • the loose attachment of the scapula allows it to slideback and forth against the thorax as muscles act
    • the gleniod cavity is shallow, and the shoulder joint is poorly reinforced by ligaments
  12. Bones of the upper limbs
    Thirty separate bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb
  13. Arm: Humerus
    • the arm is formed by a single bone
    • typicl long bone
    • at its proximal endis a rounded head the fits into the shallow gleniod cavity of the scapula
  14. Arm: Greater and lesser tubercles
    • opposite of the head are two bony projections
    • sites of muscle attachment
  15. Arm: Deltoid tuberosity
    • in the midpiont of the shaft
    • roughened area
    • large, flashy deltoid muscle of the shoulder attaches
  16. Arm: Radial groove
    • runs obliquely down the posterior aspect of the shaft
    • this groove marks the course of the radial nerve, an important nerve of the upper limb
  17. Arm: Trochlea
    at the distal end of the humerous is the medial trochlea whcih looks somewhat like a spool
  18. Arm: Capitulum
     at the distal end is also the lateral ball like capitulium
  19. Arm: Coroniod fossa
    above the trochlea anteriorly is a depresion called coronoid fossa
  20. Arm: Olecranon fossa
    on the posterior surface is the olecranon fossa

    These two depressions which are flanked by medial and lteral epicondyles allow the corresponding processes of the ulna to move freely when the elbow is bent and extended
  21. Forearm: Radius
    in anatomical position the radius is on the thumbside of the forearm
  22. Forearm: Radioular joints
    Both proximally and distally the radius and ulna articulate small radioulnar joints
  23. Forearm: Interosseous membrane
    the two bones are connected along the entire length by flexible interosseous membrane
  24. Forearm: Radial Tuberosity
    just below the head is the radial tuberosity where the tendon of the biceps muscle attaches
  25. Forearm: Ulna
    when the upper limb is in the annatomical position the ulna is the medial bone
  26. Forearm: Coroniod process
    on its proximal end are the anterior coroniod process and
  27. Forearm: Olecranon process
    posterior olecranon process
  28. Forearm: Trochlear notch
    processes are separated by the trochlear notch
  29. Hand: Carpal Bones
    eight
  30. Hand: Carpus
    • aranged in two irregular rows of four bones each form part of the carpus or wrist
    • carpals are bound together by ligaments that restrict movements between them
  31. Hand:Metacarpals
    palm of hand consist of metacarpals
  32. Hand: Phalanges
    are bones of the fingers
  33. Bones of the pelvic girdle
    • Formed by two coxal bones
    • large and heavy
    • attached securly to the axial skeleton
    • sockets which receive high thigh bones are deep and heavily rienforced by ligaments that attach the limbs firmly to the girdle
    • bearing wieght is the most important function
    • all weight of the upperbody rests on pelvis
    • also organs are protected by pelvis
    • each hip bone is formed by the fusion of three bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis.
  34. Coxal bones
    hip bones
  35. Ilium
    • connects posterioly with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint
    • large, flaring bone  thatforms most of the hipbone
  36. Sacroiliac joint
    connects posterioly with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint
  37. Iliac Crest
    the upper edge of the alae is called the iliac crest
  38. Anterior Superior Spine
    the iliac crest ends anteriorly in the anterior superior spine
  39. Posterior Superior SPine
    and posteriorly in the posterior superior spine
  40. Ischium
    • "sit down" bone
    • form most of the inferior part of the coxal bone
  41. Ischial tuberosity
    roughened area thatrecieves body wieght  when you are sitting
  42. Ischial spine
    superior to the tuberosity is another important anatomical landmark particulary in pregnant women because it narrows the outlet of the pelvis through which the baby must pass during birth process
  43. Greater sciatic notch
    allows blood vessels and the large sciatic nerve to pass from the pelvisposteriorly into the though
  44. Pubis
    is the most anterior part of the coxal bone
  45. Obturator foramen
    fusion of the rami of the pubic bone anteriorly and the ischium posteriorly forms a bar of bone enclosing the obturator faramen an opening which allows blood vessels and nerves to pass into the anteirior part of the thigh.
  46. Pubic symphysis
    pubic bones of hip fuse anteriorly to form a cartilaginous joint
  47. Acetablum
    • ilium ischium and pubis fuse at the deep socket called the acetabulum
    • meaning vineger cup
    • this socket recieve the head of the thigh bone
  48. False Pelvis
    • false pelvis is superior
    • medial to the flaring parts of the iliia
  49. True pelvis
    • true pelvis is inferior
    • surrounded by bone
    • lies inferior to the flaring parts of the ilia and the pelvic brim
  50. Outlet
    inferior opening of the pelvis
  51. Inlet
    superior opening of the pelvis
  52. Differences of male and female pelvis
    • Female inlet is larger and more circular
    • Female pelvis as a whole is shallower, and the bones are lighter and thinner
    • The female ilia flare more laterally
    • The female pubic arch is more rounded because of the angle of the pubic arch is greater
    • The female sacrum is shorter and less curved
    • The female ischial spines are shorter and farther apart;thus the outlet is larger
  53. Bones of the lower limbs
    Carry are entire body weight
  54. Thigh: Femur
    heavyest and strongest bone in the body
  55. Thigh: Greater and lesser trochanters
    Its proximal end has a ball like head, a neck and greater and lesser trochanters
  56. Thigh: Intertrochanteric line
    separates greater and lesser trochanters anteriorly
  57. Thigh: intertrochanteric crest
    separates greatr and leser trochanter posteriorly
  58. Thigh: Gluteal tuberosity
    serves as a sight for muscle attachment
  59. Thigh: intercondyle notch
    separate the medial and lateral condyles that articulate the tibia
  60. Leg: Interosseous Membrane
    Connected along there lenght by interosseous membrane
  61. Leg: Tibia
    • Shinbone
    • larger and more medial
  62. Leg: Tubial tuberosity
    roughened area on the anterior tibial surface
  63. Leg: Medial Malleous
    forms inner bulge of ankle
  64. Leg: Anterior Crest
    • sharp ridge
    • unprotected by muscles
  65. Leg: Fibula
    • lies along side the tibia 
    • forms joints with it both proximally and distally
    • thin and stick like
    • fibula has no part in forming the knee joint
  66. Leg: Lateral Melleous
    forms the outer part of the ankle
  67. Foot: Tarsus
    Forming the posterior half of the foot composed of seven tarsal bones
  68. Foot: Tarsal Bones
    • seven
    • body wieght is carried by two largest: calcaneus and talus
  69. Foot: Calcaneus
    heelbone
  70. Foot: Talus
    lies between the tibia and the calcaneus
  71. Foot: Metatarsals
    • Five
    • form the sole
  72. Foot: Phalanges
    14

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