Joints and develepmental Aspects of the skeleton

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Joints and develepmental Aspects of the skeleton
2014-02-18 08:51:40

About joints and skeleton development
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  1. What are the two functions of joints?
    They hold the bones together securely and also give the rigid skeleton nobility.
  2. List and describe the three functional classifications of joints.
    • Functional classification focuses on the amount of movement allowed by the joint.
    • Synarthroses: immovable joints, axial skeleton
    • Amphiarthroses: slightly movable joints, axial skeleton
    • Diarthroses: freely movable joints, dominate in the limbs where mobility is important
  3. List and and give an example of the three structural classifications of joints.
    • Based on whether fibrous tissue, cartilage, or joint cavity separates the bony regions at the joint.
    • Fibrous: bones are united by fibrous tissue.
    • EX: Sutures of the skull, irregular edges of bones interlock and are bound tightly together by connective tissue fibers allowing essentially no movement to occur.
    • Cartilaginous: bone ends are connected by cartilage.
    • Slightly movable (amphiarthrotic) EX: Pubic symphysis of pelvis and intervertebral joints
    • Immovable (Synarthrotic) EX: Epiphyseal plates, cartilaginous joints between the first ribs and the sternum 
    • Synovial Joints: articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing Synovial fluid.
  4. What are the four distinguishing characteristics of synovial joints?
    • Articular Cartilage: covers ends of bones forming the joint
    • Fibrous articular cartilage: joint surfaces are enclosed by a sleeve or capsule of fibrous connective tissue, and the capsule is lined with a smooth synovial membrane.
    • Joint Cavity: Articular capsule encloses a cavity, called the joint cavity, which contains lubricating synovial fluid.
    • Reinforcing ligaments: The fibrous capsule is usually reinforced with ligaments.
  5. List the 6 types of synovial joints
    • Plane Joint: articular cartilages are flat, and only short slipping movements are allowed.
    • Nonaxial: gliding does not include rotation
    • Intercarpal joints of the wrist
    • Hinge Joint: the cylindrical end of the bone fits into a trough shaped surface on another bone. 
    • Uniaxial: they allow movement around one axis only
    • Elbow joint, ankle joint, joints between the phalanges of the fingers
    • Pivot Joint:
    • the rounded end of one bone fits intoa sleeve or ring of bone (possibly ligaments)
    • Uniaxial, can turn around its long axis
    • Proximal radioulnar joint, joint between the atlas and the dens of the axis
    • Condyle Joint: the egg shaped articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity in another.
    • Biaxial: move side to side and back and forth, cannot rotate around its long axis
    • Knuckle joints
    • Saddle Joint: every articular surface has concave and convex articular surfaces, like a saddle
    • allows same movements as condyle joints 
    • Carpometacarpal joints in the thumb
    • Ball-and-Socket Joint: the spherical head of one bone fits into a round socket in another.
    • Multiaxial: movement on all axis
    • Shoulder and hip joints