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Who were the first people to use Typology when screening suspects?
What information is top down typology based on?
- In depth interviews with 36 convicted sexually orientated murderers, including Ted Bundy and Charles Manson
- A collection of information from the Behavioural Science Unit of the FBI
What is the past information used for in the top down approach?
It is combined with a detailed examination of the new crime scene, the nature of the attacks, forensic evidence and any evidence relating to the victim to develop models resulting in an offender profile
What is Typology?
The categorisation of an offender based on a pre-existing template of criminal behaviour.
To which situation is Typology best suited?
Crime scenes that reveal important information about a suspect (rape, arson, ritualistic killings)
What did Douglas et al suggest in 1992?
A third category of, 'mixed', should be implemented in order to encompass those who could not be easily classified as organised or disorganised criminals
Why is profiling ineffective against crimes such as murder or assault in the course of a robbery and destruction of property according to the FBI?
The crime scene reveals too little about the offender
State 5 traits of an organised criminal
- Above average IQ
- Skilled occupation
- Controlled mood
- Socially and sexually competent
- Follows crime on the news
- Limited change in behaviour after the crime
- Inconsistent discipline as a child
- Use of alcohol during the crime
State 5 traits of a disorganised criminal
- Lower than average IQ
- Unskilled occupation
- Uncontrolled mood
- Living alone and near the crime scene
- Socially and sexually incompetent
- Harsh discipline as a child
- Does not follow crime on the news
- Major behavioural change after the crime
- Alcohol not used during the crime
State 5 characteristics of an organised murder scene
- Victim is a targeted stranger
- Control (restraints)
- Aggression before death
- Body hidden or moved
- Weapon and evidence absent
State 5 characteristics of a disorganised murder scene
- Victim was known by offender
- Little control
- Sexual acts before death
- Body left at crime scene or not hidden
- Evidence present
Give two strengths of the Typology approach
- It allows police to narrow down a range of suspects
- It can help predict the best interview techniques to use
How is typology lacking in theoretical basis?
The development and efficiency of the methods were not published so it is not open to scientific scrutiny
What did Holmes and De Burger suggest in 1988?
- There may be more than just organised and disorganised offenders
- Proposed 6 types of serial killers that can be defined with a combination of 14 characteristics
Why is reliance on a classification system flawed?
It carries with it the assumption that criminals never change their modus operandi
Why can't typology be used for all criminals?
Not all offenders can be typed, typology is only relevant to a small number of crimes (murder, rape)
Describe the involvement of typology in the Washington sniper case
- A profile was formed of a middle aged white male with military background working alone
- The killer was a young black male with no military experience working with a partner
What criticisms can be made about the sample used by typologists?
- The sample of serious offenders used was small and from one country.
- This sample group is not representative of unconvicted serial killers and murderers in other countries
What did David Canter suggest about typology?
Relying on interviews is naïve as convicted serial killers are cruel and manipulative, often lying