Western Civilization: the Civilization of Ancient Rome

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Western Civilization: the Civilization of Ancient Rome
2014-01-03 12:14:50
Western Civ
Western Civilization
Clep exam prep
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  1. Law of the Twelve Tables (or Twelve Tables of Rome)
    the formal codification of Roman law. "innocent until proven guilty" was one of the laws then also international code for conquered territories
  2. Cicero
    (106-43 BCE) One of the most influential Roman Stoics and orators and defender of republican virtues
  3. Etruscans
    The earliest inhabitants of the Italian peninsula. the non-Indo-European speaking settlers of the Italian peninsula, who dominated the region from the late Bronze Age until the rise of the Romans in sixth century.
  4. equestrian order
    Romans who chose a life of business over politics.
  5. princep
    title given to Augustus; means "first man"
  6. Scipio Africanus
    Roman general defeated Hannibal at Zama in 202 B.C.E
  7. Patricians
    early Roman aristocracy; land-owning noblemen
  8. Plebians
    the citizen population of Rome that included farmers, merchants, and the urban poor (all non-patrician free men)
  9. Carthage
    a great maritime empire that stretched across the northern coast of Africa from modern-day Tunisia to the Straits of Gibraltar and bitterly fought against Rome in the Punic Wars that began in 264 B.C.E. and ended with the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C.E.
  10. Augustus (AKA Octavius)
    (63 BCE-14 CE) grandnephew of Julius Caesar and first emperor of the Roman empire.Rome becomes capital of Western world. Augustus established rule of law, common coin, civil service, safe travel for merchants --> stable prosperity Pax Romana (arts flourish; Ovid's metamorphoses and Virgil's aeneid; pantheon colosseum, forum; Ptolemy)
  11. Julius Cesear
    (100-44 BCE) the Roman general who conquered the Gauls and expanded Rome's territory in Asia Minor (chose not to conquer Germany which later led to decline of Rome). After giths between Senate and Caesar's followers he won. He became the dictator of Rome n 46 B.C.E. and was murdered by Brutus and Cassius in 44 BCE, which led to the rise of Augustus and the end of the Roman republic.
  12. Aqueducts
    the roman engineered system that brought water from the mountains down to the Roman cities.
  13. Gaul
    the region of the Roman empire that is modern Belgium, Germany west of the Rhine, and France.
  14. Roman Republic
    Gov't made up of Senate (patrician) and Assembly (first patrician then included plebians); two consuls elected by Assembly
  15. Punic Wars
    (264 -146 BCE) Wars between Rome and Carthage (city-state in North Africa); made up of first, second, and third punic wars
  16. Hannibal
    Carthiginian general; led army to northern Italy and crossed Alps to surprise attack Romans during Second Punic War (218-201 BCE); however Roman army in North Africa forced Hannibal to retreat
  17. Fall of Roman Republic
    • 1. slaves displaced farmers overcrowding cities and jobs
    • 2. Roman currency devalued causing inflation
    • 3. Political leaders fighting --> first triumvirate
  18. First Triumvirate
    Pompey, Crassus, Julius Caesar
  19. Second triumvirate
    Octavius, Marc Antony, Lepidus