PT EXAM - Musculoskeletal

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PT EXAM - Musculoskeletal
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2014-01-04 07:24:55
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PT Exam - Musculoskeletal
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  1. Describe the three classes of levers.
    • Class 1: Axis of rotation is between the force and the load. The biceps curl is an example.  Seesaw.
    • Class 2: Load is between the axis of rotation and the force.  The length of the force arm is always longer than the resistance.  In most cases, gravity is the resistance, and muscle activity the force.  An example is a push-up.
    • Class 3: The force is between the axis of rotation and the load. The length of the force arm is always shorter than the resistance arm. Shoulder abduction with weight at the wrist is a class 3 lever.
  2. What are the three distinct types of joint classification?
    • 1. Synarthroses (Fibrous)
    • 2. Amphiarthroses (Cartilaginous)
    • 3. Diarthroses (Synovial)
  3. Describe three types of a Synarthrosis joint.
    • 1. Suture (sagittal suture of skull), union of two bones by a ligament or membrane, immovable, and possibility of fusion (synostosis).
    • 2. Syndesmosis (tibia/fibula with interroseous membrane) bone connected to bone by a dense bifrous membrane or cord, very little motion.
    • 3. Gomphosis (tooth in socket) two bony surfaces connected as a peg in a hole, the teeth in the mandible and maxilla are the only gomphosis joints in the body.
  4. Describe two types of a Amphiarthrosis joint.
    • 1. Synchondrosis (sternum and true rib articulation) hyaline cartilage adjoins two ossifying centers of bone, provide stability during growth, may become a synostosis when growth is completed, slight motion.
    • Symphiysis (pubic symphysis) generally located in the midline of the body, two bones covered in hyaline cartilage, two bones connected by fibrocartilage, slight motion.
  5. Describe three types of a Diarthrosis joint.
    • 1. Uniaxial has one motion around a single axis in one plan of the body. Hinge (ginglymus) elbow joint. Pivot (trochoid) atlantoaxial joint.
    • 2. Biaxial movement occurs in two planes and around two axes through convex/concave surfaces. Condyloid - MCP joint of a finger. Saddle - CMC joint of the thumb.
    • 3. Multiaxial movement occurs in three planes and around three axes. Plane (gliding) - carpal joints. Ball and socket - hip joint.
  6. List the 5 types of joint receptors.
    • 1. Free Nerve Endings
    • 2. Golgi Ligament Endings
    • 3. Mazzoni Corpuscles
    • 4. Pacinian Corpuscles
    • 5. Ruffini Endings
  7. Describe the location, sensitivity and primary distribution of a Free Nerve Ending.
    • Location: Joint capsule, ligaments, synovium, fat pads.
    • Sensitivity: One type is sensitive to non-noxious mechanical stress; the other type is sensitive to noxious mechanical or biomechanical stimuli.
    • Primary Distribution: All joints.
  8. Describe the location, sensitivity and primary distribution of a Golgi Ligament Ending.
    • Location: Ligament, adjacent to ligaments' bony attachment.
    • Sensitivity: Tension or stretch on ligaments.
    • Primary Distribution: Majority of joints.
  9. Describe the location, sensitivity and primary distribution of a Mazzoni Corpuscle.
    • Location: Joint capsule.
    • Sensitivity: Compression of joint capsule.
    • Primary Distribution: Knee joint, joint capsule.
  10. Describe the location, sensitivity and primary distribution of a Pacinian Corpuscle.
    • Location: Fibrous layer of joint capsule.
    • Sensitivity: High frequency vibration, acceleration, and high velocity changes in joint position.
    • Primary Distribution: All joints.
  11. Describe the location, sensitivity and primary distribution of a Ruffini Ending.
    • Location: Fibrous layer of joint capsule.
    • Sensitivity: Stretching of joint capsule; amplitude, and velocity of joint position.
    • Primary Distribution: Greater density in proximal joints, particularly in capsular regions.
  12. List the muscles involved that cause elevation of the temporomandibular joint.
    • 1. Temporalis
    • 2. Masseter
    • 3. Medial pterygoid
  13. List the muscles involved that cause depression of the temporomandibular joint.
    • 1. Lateral ptergoid
    • 2. Suprahyoid
    • 3. Infrahyoid
  14. List the muscles involved that cause protrusion of the temporomandibular joint.
    • 1. Masseter
    • 2. Lateral pterygoid
    • 3. Medial pterygoid
  15. List the muscles involved that cause retrusion of the temporomandibular joint.
    • 1. Temporalis
    • 2. Masseter
    • 3. Digastric
  16. List the muscles involved that cause side to side movement of the temporomandibular joint.
    • 1. Medial pterygoid
    • 2. Lateral pterygoid
    • 3. Masseter
    • 4. Temporalis
  17. List the muscles involved that cause flexion of the cervical intervertebral joints.
    • 1. Sternocleidomastoid
    • 2. Longus colli
    • 3. Scalenes
  18. List the muscles involved that cause extension of the cervical intervertebral joints.
    • 1. Splenius cervicis
    • 2. Semispinalis cervicis
    • 3. Iliocostalis cervicis
    • 4. Longissimus cervicis
    • 5. Multifidus
    • 6. Trapezius
  19. List the muscles involved that cause rotation and lateral bending of the cervical intervertebral joints.
    • 1. Sternocleidomastoid
    • 2. Scalenes
    • 3. Splenius cervicis
    • 4. Longissimus cervicis
    • 5. Iliocostalis cervicis
    • 6. Levator scapulae
    • 7. Multifidus
  20. List the muscles involved that cause flexion of the thoracic and lumbar intervertebral joints.
    • 1. Rectus abdominus
    • 2. Internal oblique
    • 3. External oblique
  21. List the muscles involved that cause extension of the thoracic and lumbar intervertebral joints.
    • 1. Erector spinae
    • 2. Quadrutus lumborum
    • 3. Multifidus
  22. List the muscles involved that cause rotation and lateral bending of the thoracic and lumbar intervertebral joints.
    • 1. Psoas major
    • 2. Quadrutus lumborum
    • 3. External oblique
    • 4. Internal oblique
    • 5. Multifidus
    • 6. Longissimus thoracis
    • 7. Iliocostalis thoracis
    • 8. Rotatores
  23. List the muscles involved that cause elevation of the scapula.
    • 1. Upper trapezius
    • 2. Levator scapulae
  24. List the muscles involved that cause depression of the scapula.
    • 1. Latissimus dorsi
    • 2. Pectoralis major
    • 3. Pectoralis minor
    • 4. Lower trapezius
  25. List the muscles involved that cause protraction of the scapula.
    • 1. Serratus anterior
    • 2. Pectoralis minor
  26. List the muscles involved that cause retraction of the scapula.
    • 1. Trapezius
    • 2. Rhomboids
  27. List the muscles involved that cause upward rotation of the scapula.
    • 1. Trapezius
    • 2. Serratus anterior
  28. List the muscles involved that cause downward rotation of the scapula.
    • 1. Rhomboids
    • 2. Levator scapulae
    • 3. Pectoralis minor
  29. List the muscles involved that cause flexion of the shoulder joint.
    • 1. Anterior deltoid
    • 2. Coracobrachialis
    • 3. Pectoralis major
    • 4. Biceps brachii
  30. List the muscles involved that cause extension of the shoulder joint.
    • 1. Latissimus dorsi
    • 2. Posterior deltoid
    • 3. Teres major
  31. List the muscles involved that cause abduction of the shoulder joint.
    • 1. Middle deltoid
    • 2. Supraspinatus
  32. List the muscles involved that cause adduction of the shoulder joint.
    • 1. Pectoralis major
    • 2. Latissimus dorsi
    • 3. Teres major
  33. List the muscles involved that cause lateral rotation of the shoulder joint.
    • 1. Teres minor
    • 2. Infraspinatus
    • 3. Posterior deltoid
  34. List the muscles involved that cause medial rotation of the shoulder joint.
    • 1. Subscapularis
    • 2. Teres major
    • 3. Pectoralis major
    • 4. Latissimus dorsi
    • 5. Anterior deltoid
  35. List the muscles involved that cause flexion of the elbow joint.
    • 1. Biceps brachii
    • 2. Brachialis
    • 3. Brachioradialis
  36. List the muscles involved that cause extension of the elbow joint.
    • 1. Triceps brachii
    • 2. Anconeus
  37. List the muscles involved that cause supination of the radioulnar joint.
    • 1. Biceps brachii
    • 2. Supinator
  38. List the muscles involved that cause pronation of the radioulnar joint.
    • 1. Pronator teres
    • 2. Pronator quadratus
  39. List the muscles involved that cause extension of the wrist joint.
    • 1. Extensor carpi radialis longus
    • 2. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
    • 3. Extnesor carpi ulnaris
  40. List the muscles involved that cause flexion of the wrist joint.
    • 1. Flexor carpi radialis
    • 2. Flexor carpi ulnaris
    • 3. Palmaris longus
  41. List the muscles involved that cause radial deviation of the wrist joint.
    • 1. Extensor carpi radialis
    • 2. Flexor carpi radialis
    • 3. Extensor pollicis longus and brevis
  42. List the muscles involved that cause ulnar deviation of the wrist joint.
    • 1. Extensor carpi ulnaris
    • 2. Flexor carpi ulnaris
  43. List the muscles involved that cause flexion of the hip joint.
    • 1. Iliopsoas
    • 2. Sartorius
    • 3. Rectus femoris
    • 4. Pectineus
  44. List the muscles involved that cause extension of the hip joint.
    • 1. Gluteus maximus 
    • 2. Gluteus minimus
    • 3. Semitendinosus
    • 4. Semimembranosus
    • 5. Biceps femoris
  45. List the muscles involved that cause abduction of the hip joint.
    • 1. Gluteus medius
    • 2. Gluteus minimus
    • 3. Piriformis
    • 4. Obturator internus
    • 5. Tensor fasciae latae
  46. List the muscles involved that cause adduction of the hip joint.
    • 1. Adductor magnus
    • 2. Adductor longus
    • 3. Adductor brevis
    • 4. Gracilis
  47. List the muscles involved that cause medial rotation of the hip joint.
    • 1. Tensor fasciae latae
    • 2. Gluteus medius
    • 3. Gluteus minimus
    • 4. Pectineus
    • 5. Adductor longus
  48. List the muscles involved that cause lateral rotation of the hip joint.
    • 1. Gluteus maximus 
    • 2. Obturator externus
    • 3. Obturator internus
    • 4. Piriformis
    • 5. Gemelli
    • 6. Sartorius
  49. List the muscles involved that cause flexion of the knee joint.
    • 1. Biceps femoris
    • 2. Semitendinosis
    • 3. Semimembranosus
    • 4. Sartorius
  50. List the muscles involved that cause extension of the knee joint.
    • 1. Rectus femoris
    • 2. Vastus lateralis
    • 3. Vastus intermedius
    • 4. Vastus medialis
  51. List the muscles involved that cause plantar flexion of the ankle joint.
    • 1. Tibialis posterior
    • 2. Gastrocnemius
    • 3. Soleus
    • 4. Peroneus longus
    • 5. Peroneus brevis
    • 6. Plantaris
    • 7. Flexor hallucis
  52. List the muscles involved that cause dorsiflexion of the ankle joint.
    • 1. Tibialis anterior
    • 2. Extensor hallucis longus
    • 3. Extensor digitorum longus
    • 4. Peroneus tertius
  53. List the muscles involved that cause inversion of the ankle joint.
    • 1. Tibialis posterior
    • 2. Tibialis anterior
    • 3. Flexor digitorum longus
  54. List the muscles involved that cause eversion of the ankle joint.
    • 1. Peroneus longus
    • 2. Peroneus brevis
    • 3. Peroneus tertius

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