US History Midterm
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State the notable fact of Bartholomew Dias.
He rounded the southern tip of Africa proving that a water route to the Far East had been found.
State the notable fact of Christopher Columbus.
He believed one could sail West to reach the Far East.
State the notable fact of Vasco da Gama.
He was the first European to reach the Far East by sailing around Africa.
State the notable fact of Hernando Cortes.
He conquered the Aztec Indians of Mexico.
State the notable fact of Ferdinand Magellan.
The first to sail around the world.
State the notable fact of Hernando De Soto.
He discovered and explored the Mississippi River.
State the notable fact of Jacques Cartier.
He discovered the St. Lawrence River.
State the notable fact of Samuel de Champlain.
He established the first French settlement in the New World.
State the notable fact of Francisco Pizarro.
He conquered the Inca Indians of Peru.
Give the three dates associated with the exploration to the Far East and the names of the men who are linked with the event.
Dias ~ 1488
de Gama ~ 1497
Columbus ~ 1492
What was the major objective of exploration?
To find an all water route to the Far East.
Give the two reasons why Spain did emerge as the leader in exploration due to its motives.
1) The value of Spain wanted to conquer the world for Spain and the R.C.C
2) They wanted to convert the Nations to the R.C.C
What three things were accomplished by the Treaty of Tordesillas?
1) Confirmed Portugal to own the water routes from Africa to India
2) Confirmed Spain to own most of the Americas
3) Moved the line of demarcation 1,000 miles westward which gave Brazil to Portugal
Explain why the Crusades was a major cause for exploration.
Although the Crusades original purpose was not completed, it increased trade between the Europeans and the Middle East.
Give the four geographical locations of France in the New World.
1) Northeast Canada
2) The Great Lakes Area
3) The Mississippi River Valley
Explain why Portugal limited its exploration in the New World.
Portugal was satisfied with its sale possessions of a water route to the Far East.
Why was the Renaissance a major cause for exploration?
The increase in the desire of learning helped more discoveries happen, which led to more exploration.
Give the two reasons why Spain did emerge as the leader in exploration due to its history.
1) Columbus and many other early settlers initiated exploration
2) Fame and fortune
Explain how the sovereignty of God is revealed in our study of exploration.
Because of our belief in a sovereign God, we believe also in His divine providence, which is His way of organizing the people and land He created to His own purpose. He caused great distance for the Vikings to settle, the Indians to drive them out, and also disease to strike them.
Give the six geographical locations of Spain in the exploration of the New World.
1) Southern America
2) Central America
4) Southwest U.S
6) The Caribbeans
Jamestown was the first English settlement in the Americas. What were the four major problems facing the settlement?
What were the three cash crops in the southern colonies?
What was the cash crop in the Middle Colonies?
Give two facts for the opposing sides in the Great English Civil Wat during King Charles I reign.
1) Calvaries (For the King) & Roundheads (Against the King)
2) Divine Right (For the King) & Government of Law (Against the King)
What are the three kinds of Colonies?
Give the two key historical events and their dates during the reign of James I.
1) The Foundation of Jamestown ~ 1602
2) The King James version of the Bible ~ 1607
Because of the physical features of the New England Colonies, what are three major industries?
1) Triangular trade
Define the term Imperialism.
The economic, cultural, and political domination over other colonies.
Define the term Mercantilism.
The policies and practices that believed that the colonies were established for the good of the motherland.
What two sources were provided by the colonies for the motherland?
1) Raw Materials
2) New Markets
List three reasons for English colonizations in North America.
1) For wealth
2) To set up markets
3) Religious freedom
What is meant by subsistence farming?
Only producing enough crop to satisfy the family.
What is meant by indentured servants?
A slave that is claimed under a contract, or indenture, that proclaims the slave owner must provide clothing, food, and shelter until the indentured expires.
Give the two reasons for the development of the slave trade in the colonies?
1) Labor force
What are cash crops?
Crops produced for the main purpose of being sold in market.
What is meant when monarchs/rulers believe in "Divine Right of Kings"
That God places the King and government under complete authority*
What belief promoted the idea of separation of the Church and state in certain colonies?
That voting shouldn't be limited to religious men.
What are the two "Great Changes" during the reign of King George II?
1) The French and Indian War
2) The Great Awakening
What are the "Revolutions" during the reign of King George III?
Give the dates for the war between the French and the British in the colonies and Europe.
1) Colonies ~ 1754 - 1763
2) Europe ~ 1756 - 1763
What were the two major results of the French and Indian War?
1) Eliminated French Power in North America
2) Produced a War Debt
Give the two ways in which the English colonies existed for the economic benefit of the motherland.
1) Served as a means for raw materials
2) Served as a market for the British
In what two ways did the colonists remain loyal for 150 years to the motherland?
1) A large measure of self-rule
2) Protection from the Indians/French
Give the six major issues and the explanation of each issue that caused the colonists to want independence from England.
1) Religion ~ Emphasized individualism and rights against traditional authority
2) Land ~ English did not let colonies settle freely west of the Appalachian Mountains
3) Leadership ~ England's authority was hurt through the King and the Parliament
4) Military ~ The British Army was viewed as a way to control, not protect, the colonists
5) Representation ~ No taxation without representation
6) Distance ~ England lacked real contract and communication with the colonies
What was significant about the battle of Lexington and concord?
"The shot heard 'round the world" (Changed the course of History)
Give the two fundamental rights stated by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence.
1) All men are created equal
2) All men have inalienable rights; life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Give the four fundamental ideas of government stated by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence.
1) Gov't is to be applicable to the system of rights
2) Gov't is to be consent
3) Gov't is to be altered of abolished if it goes against the system of rights
4) Gov't is to be reestablished by the people
Give two reasons why the congress during the confederation was not able to raise money?
1) Locked power to make trade: To impose taxes
2) Make treaties: To regulate trade
Why did the 13 states of the confederation establish a weak central government?
Did not want to give up newly received freedom to a tyrannical government.
Give a complete understanding concerning the area of discord among delegates at the convention in Philadelphia.
1) Proportional: Large State vs. Small State
2) Geographical: North vs. South
3) Political: Strong National Government vs. Strong State Government
What were the three issues for debate at the convention?
In what year did the constitutional convention occur in Philadelphia?
Give the names of the plans introduced by the following individuals.
1) Roger Sherman ~ The Connecticut Plan
2) William Paterson ~ The New Jersey Plan
3) Edmund Randoph ~ The Virgin Plan
Give four major facts concerning representation in the Large State Plan
1) A bicameral (2 houses) legislative
2) Representation, based on population
3) The people elect members of lower house
4) The lower house elect members of upper house
Give two facts concerning the Small State Plan.
1) A unimeral (1 house) legislature
2) Each state was equal in representation
Give five major facts to illustrate representation in the great compromise.
1) A bicameral (2 house) legislature
2) Lower house (House of Reps.) would be elected by population
3) Upper house (Senate) would be elected by the lower house
4) Strong National Government vs. Strong Government
5) Roger Sherman
What was the issue concerning slavery at the convention?
Should slaves be considered part of population to elect representatives
What were the two issues concerning the presidency at the conventions?
1) Should executive branch he headed by 1 or several leaders
2) Should leader(s) be chosen by congress or the people
In what year was the constitution ratified?
In what year were the Bill of Rights added?
Which article of the constitution gave the guidelines for the ratification process?
Give two explanations/reasons for certain states being a part of the nine for ratification.
1) If Virginia failed to ratify, the southern states would follow
2) If population states failed to ratify, the new government would weaken
What were two major appeals of the anti-federalists?
1) The constitution takes power away from the states
2) The constitution does not guarantee basic liberties
Give the four major appeals of the federalists.
1) The Articles were too weak to hold the country together
2) A bill of rights would be added to guarantee personal freedoms
3) An amendment would reserve for the states all powers not specifically granted to the national gov't
4) Any problems in the constitutional can be later amended (changed)
How is the number determined of the electors for each state?
However many Senators and Representatives in Congress.
What was determined in the Northwest ordinance which proved to be a major factor in US History years later?
The US divided between Southern slave-holding states and Northern free states.
Give six facts/thoughts to illustrate the weaknesses of the confederation era.
1) One branch of government (legislature)
2) No executive and judicial branches of government to balance power
3) One vote for each state
4) One vote for pass in law: 9 of 13 states must agree
5) One vote for change in law: Unanimous vote
6) Central government for servant states
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