Dentistry Term

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jgwurth
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255093
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Dentistry Term
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2014-01-04 10:36:15
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Dental Dentistry Terms
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Commonly used dental terms
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  1. Anterior
    The direction towards the front of the head or the lips, as opposed to posterior, which refers to the directions towards the back of an individual's head. The term anterior teeth refers to incisors and canines, as opposed to premolars and molars, which are posterior teeth.
  2. Apical
    The direction towards the root tip(s) of a tooth, as opposed to coronal, which refers to the direction towards the crown. It may also refer to something relating to the roots, such as apical support. When referring to direction in relation to entities on or of the crown, this term can be synonymous with both cervical and gingival.
  3. Axial
    A plane parallel to the surface of a tooth. For example, if a drill bur would be inserted into a tooth from any side (proximal, facial or lingual), the depth of the hole is defined by the axial wall of the hole.
  4. Buccal
    The side of a tooth that is adjacent to (or the direction towards) the inside of the cheek, as opposed to lingual or palatal, which refer to the side of a tooth adjacent to (or the direction towards) the tongue or palate, respectively. Although technically referring only to posterior teeth (where the cheeks are present instead of lips, use of this term may extend to all teeth, anterior and posterior), this term may be employed to describe the facial surface of (or directions in relation to) anterior teeth as well.
  5. Canines
    In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. They are often the largest teeth in a mammal's mouth. Most species that develop them normally have four per individual, two in the upper jaw and two in the lower, separated within each jaw by its incisors; humans and dogs are examples. In most animals, canines are the anterior-most teeth in the maxillary bone. The four canines in humans are the two maxillary canines and the two mandibular canines.
  6. Cervical
    Means neck in Latin (as in cervical vertebrae), and refers to the narrowing of the contours of the tooth surface at or near the CEJ, where the crown meets the root. When referring to direction in relation to entities on or of the crown, it is nearly synonymous with both apical and gingival.
  7. Coronal
    The direction towards the crown of a tooth, as opposed to apical, which refers to the direction towards the tip(s) of the root(s). It may also refer to something relating to the crown, such as coronal forces.
  8. Distal
    The direction towards the last tooth in each quadrant of a dental arch, as opposed to mesial, which refers to the direction towards the anterior midline. Each tooth can be described as having a distal surface and, for posterior teeth, a distobuccal (DB) and a distolingual (DL) corner or cusp.
  9. Facial
    The side of a tooth that is adjacent to (or the direction towards) the inside of the cheek or lips, as opposed to lingual or palatal, which refer to the side of a tooth adjacent to (or the direction towards) the tongue or palate, respectively. This term is an umbrella term for both the term buccal and labial.
  10. Gingival
    The direction towards the gingiva (gums), synonymous with cervical and similar to apical. However, locations on teeth already more apical to the interface of the crown and root, referred to as the CEJ, tend not to be described using this term, as it would lead to confusion, as the exact definition is ambiguous. Additionally, this term would not be used when referring to a tooth ex vivo.
  11. Incisal
    Either the direction towards the biting edge of anterior teeth, or to something relating to this edge, such as the terms incisal guidance or incisal edge. This is the sister term to occlusal, which related to the analogous location on posterior teeth.
  12. Incisors
    Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most heterodont mammals. They are located in the premaxilla above and on the mandible below. Humans have a total of eight (two on each side, top and bottom). Opossums have 18, whereas armadillos have none. Adult humans normally have eight incisors, two of each type. The types of incisor are: maxillary central incisor (upper jaw, closest to the center of the lips) maxillary lateral incisor (upper jaw, beside the maxillary central incisor) mandibular central incisor (lower jaw, closest to the center of the lips) mandibular lateral incisor (lower jaw, beside the mandibular central incisor)
  13. Inferior
    The direction towards the feet of a human's body, as opposed to superior, which refers to the direction towards the head. However, use of these terms should enjoy only limited usage when discussing features of a tooth, as, for example, something more inferior on a mandibular tooth will be situated more superior on a maxillary tooth, as they exhibit an inverted relationship. It is for this reason that the terms coronal and apical are substituted.
  14. Interproximal
    An adjective meaning between teeth. For example, interproximal teeth refers to the space between adjacent teeth.
  15. Labial
    The side of a tooth that is adjacent to (or the direction towards) the inside of the lip, as opposed to lingual or palatal, which refer to the side of a tooth adjacent to (or the direction towards) the tongue or palate, respectively. Although technically referring only to anterior teeth (where the lips are present instead of cheeks), use of the term buccal may extend to all teeth, anterior and posterior.
  16. Lingual
    The side of a tooth adjacent to (or the direction towards) the tongue, as opposed to buccal, labial, or facial which refer to the side of a tooth adjacent to (or the direction towards) the inside of the cheek or lips, respectively. Although this term is technically specific to the mandible, it enjoys extensive use in reference to the maxilla as well (see Palatal.)
  17. Mandibular
    Entities related to the mandible, or lower jaw.
  18. Marginal
    A number of different 'margins' that are involved in dentistry. The edge of tooth structure that is prepared to meet the edge of a prosthetic crown is called a margin, as is the aforementioned edge of the crown; an example of this usage would be "a poorly fitting crown might exhibit marginal leakage." The gingiva and bone that abut the teeth are referred to as 'marginal', as in marginal periodontitis. The bulk of tooth structure on the occlusal surface at the point of contact of posterior teeth is referred to as the marginal ridge.
  19. Maxillary
    Entities related to the maxilla, or upper jaw.
  20. Mesial
    The direction towards the anterior midline in a dental arch, as opposed to distal, which refers to the direction towards the last tooth in each quadrant. Each tooth can be described as having a mesial surface and, for posterior teeth, a mesiobuccal (MB) and a mesiolingual (ML) corner or cusp.
  21. Molars
    Molars are the most posterior and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. In many mammals they grind food; hence the Latin name mola, "millstone". In humans, the molars are four-cusped teeth.
  22. Occlusal
    Either the direction towards the biting surface of posterior teeth, or to something relating to this surface, such as the terms occlusal interference or occlusal surface. This is the sister term to incisal, which related to the analogous location on anterior teeth.
  23. Palatal
    The side of a tooth adjacent to (or the direction towards) the palate, as opposed to buccal, labial or facial which refer to the side of a tooth adjacent to (or the direction towards) the inside of the cheek or lips, respectively. This term is strictly used in the maxilla.
  24. Posterior
    The direction towards the back of an individual's head, as opposed to anterior, which refers to the directions towards an individual's lips. The term posterior teeth refers to premolars and molars, as opposed to incisors and canines, which are anterior teeth.
  25. Premolars
    The premolar teeth are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. In humans, there are two premolars per quadrant, making eight premolars total in the mouth. They have at least two cusps. Premolars can be considered as a 'transitional tooth' during chewing, or mastication. It has properties of both the anterior canines and posterior molars, and so food can be transferred from the canines to the premolars and finally to the molars for grinding, instead of directly from the canines to the molars.
  26. Proximal
    The surfaces of teeth that normally lie adjacent to another tooth. It is an umbrella term which includes both mesial and distal, such as when referring to the proximal surfaces of teeth.
  27. Superior
    The direction towards the head of a human's body, as opposed to inferior, which refers to the direction towards the feet. However, use of these terms should enjoy only limited usage when discussing features of a tooth, as, for example, something more superior on a mandibular tooth will be situated more inferior on a maxillary tooth, as they exhibit an inverted relationship. It is for this reason that the terms coronal and apical are substituted.

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