A and P CH2 Part B

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  1. Classes of Compounds:
    • Inorganic: water, salts, acids and bases (no carbon)
    • Organic compounds: carbs, fats, proteins and nucleic acids (contain carbon)
  2. Properties of Water:
    • High heat capacity: absorb and release heat with little temp change (prevents sudden change in temps)
    • High heat of vaporization: evaporation req. large amounts of heat. (useful cooling mechanism)
    • Polar Solvent properties: dissolves/dissociates ionic substances, forms hydration layers around charged molecules (proteins/transport medium)
    • Reactivity: nec part of hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions.
    • Cushoning
  3. Salts:
    • ionic compounds/dissociate into ions in water: ions(electrolytes) conduct electrical currents
    • ions play specialized roles in body functions (sodium, pot, calcium, iron)
    • ionic balance vital for homeostasis
    • Contain cations other than H+ an anions other than OH-
    • Common: NaCl, CaCO3, KCl, calcium phosphates
  4. Acids and Bases:
    • both are electrolytes: ionize and dissociate in water
    • Acids: proton donors
    • Base: proton acceptors
    • Alkaline: basic solution
    • pH regulated by: kidneys, lungs and chemical buffers.
  5. Organic Compounds:
    • contain carbon except for CO2 and CO which are inorganic
    • Carbon: electroneutral, shares electrons; never gains or loses them
    • Dehydration synthesis: organic compounds synthesized
    • Hydrolysis: break down organic compounds
  6. Carbs:
    • Sugars and starches
    • Polymers
    • Contain C, H and O (CH2O)n
    • Three Classes:
    • Monosaccharides: one sugar
    • Disaccharides: two sugars
    • Polysaccharides: many sugars

    Function of Carbs: major source of cellular fuel (glucose), structural molecules (ribose sugar in RNA)
  7. Monosaccharides:
    • simple sugars, 3-7 carbons
    • Monomers of carbohydrates
    • Important:
    • Pentose Sugars (ribos/deoxyribose)
    • Hexose sugars (glucose/blood sugar)
  8. Disaccharides:
    • double sugars (too large to pass through cell membranes)
    • Important:
    • Sucrose
    • Maltose
    • Lactose
  9. Polysaccharides:
    • polymers of monosaccharides
    • Starch
    • Glycogen
    • (not very soluble)
  10. Lipids:
    • contain C, H and O
    • insoluble in water
    • Main Types:
    •      Neutral fats (triglycerides)
    •      Phospholipids
    •      Steroids
    •      Eicosanoids
  11. Neutral Fats or Triglycerides:
    • fats when solid / oils when liquid
    • Composed of 3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
    • Main Functions:
    • Energy Storage
    • Insulation
    • Protection
  12. Saturation of Fatty Acids:
    • Saturated: single covalent bonds btwn C atoms (max number of H atoms)
    • solid animal fats (butter)
    • Unsaturated: one or more double bonds between C atoms (reduced number of H atoms)
    • plant oils (olive oil)
    • Trans Fats: modified oils (unhealthy)
    • Omega 3 fatty acids: (heart healthy)
  13. Phospholipids:
    • modified triglycerides:
    • glycerol + two fatty acids and a phosphourus containing group
    • "head" and "tail" regions
    • (cell membrane structure)
  14. Steroids:
    • interlocking 4 ring structure
    • Cholesterol, Vitamin D, steroid hormones, and bile salts
    • Most important: cholesterol
  15. Eicosanoids:
    • derived from a fatty acid (arachidonic acid in cell membranes)
    • Most important: Prostaglandins: role in blood clotting, control blood pressure, inflammation and labor contractions.
  16. Other lipids in body:
    • Fat soluble vitamins: A,D,E,K
    • Lipoproteins: transport fats in blood
  17. Proteins:
    • Contain C, H, O, N and sometimes S and P
    • Proteins are polymers
    • Amino acids (20 types) are the monomers in proteins
    • -joined by covalent bonds (peptide bonds)
    • -contain amine group and acid group
    • -act as either acid or base
    • -all identical except for R group
  18. Protein Structure:
    • Primary: sequence of amino acids forms the polypeptide chain
    • Secondary: primary chain forms spirals (helices and sheets) Helix stablized by Hydrogen bonds
    • Tertiary: superimposed on secondary structure to form compact globular molecule
    • Quaternary: 2 or more polypeptide chains each with own tertiarty structure combine to form functional protein
  19. Fibrous Proteins:
    • Fibrous (structural) proteins:
    • strandlike, water insoluble and stable
    • most have tertiary or quaternary structure (3D)
    • provide mechanical support and tensile strength
    • Examples: keratin, elastin, collagen (single most abundant protein in body) and certain contractile fibers
  20. Globular Proteins:
    • Globular (functional) proteins:
    • compact, spherical, water-soluble and sensitive to environmental changes
    • tertiary or quaternary structure (3D)
    • Specific functional regions (active sites)
    • Examples: antibodies, hormones, molecular chaperones, and enzymes.
  21. Molecular Chaperones:
    • Globular proteins
    • ensure quick, accurate folding and association of other proteins
    • prevent incorrect folding
    • assist translocation of proteins and ions across membranes
    • promote breakdown of damaged or denatured proteins
    • help trigger immune response
  22. Molecular Chaperones: stress proteins
    molecular chaperones produced in response to stressful stimuli
  23. Enzymes:
    • globular proteins that act as biological catalysts (regulate/increase speed of chemical reactions)
    • Lower activation energy, increase speed
  24. Characteristics of Enzymes:
    • functoinal enzymes: Holoenzymes (consist of two parts)
    • 1. Apoenzyme (protein portion)
    • 2. Cofactor (metal ion) or coenzyme (organic molecule often a vitamin)

    • Enzymes are specific
    • End in -ase
  25. Nucleic Acids:
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    • -largest molecules in body
    • Contain: C,O,H,N and P
    • Polymers:
    • monomers: nucleotide (composed of nitrogen base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group
  26. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    • 4 Nitrogen bases:
    • Purines: Adenine (A), Guanine (G)
    • Pyrimidines: Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T)

    • pentose sugar is deoxyribose
    • provides instructions for protein synthesis
  27. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    • 4 Nitrogen bases:
    • Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil 

    • pentose sugar is ribose
    • single stranded most active outside nucleus
    • 3 variations of RNA carry out DNA orders for protein synthesis:
    • messenger RNA
    • transfer RNA
    • ribosomal Rna
  28. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    • chemical energy in glucose captured
    • directly powers chemical reactions in cells
    • energy form immediately useable by all body cells

    Structure: Adenine containing RNA nucleotide w/ 2 additional phosphate groups

    • Function: Phosphorylation:
    • terminal phosphates are enzymatically transferred to and energize other molecules
    • "primed" molecules perform cellular work (life processes) using the phosphate bond energy.
Card Set:
A and P CH2 Part B
2014-01-04 18:20:03
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