Chemistry Test #2

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chiroclown
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25512
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Chemistry Test #2
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2010-07-02 01:15:05
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Chemistry Test #2
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  1. Recognizing Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
    • A substance is oxidized when its oxidation number is increased in a reaction.
    • A substance is reduced when its oxidation number is decreased in a reaction.
  2. Molecule
    Independent structure consisting of 2 or more atoms chemically bound together.
  3. Compound
    Matter composed of 2 or more elements that are chemically bound.
  4. Law of Mass Conservation
    • Total mass of substances does not change during chemical reaction.
    • Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
  5. Law of Definite Composition
    • Compounds are composed of the same element in the same part (fractions) by mass.
    • Divide mass of each element by total mass of compound.
  6. Bionary Ionic Compound
    2 elements (typically 1 metal, 1 nonmetal) where each metal loses an electron and the nonmetal gains an electron.
  7. Monatomic Ion
    Cation or Anion derived from a single atom
  8. Coulumb's Law
    • The energy of attraction/ repulsion btwn 2 particles is directly proportional to the product of charges and inversely proportional to distance btwn them.
    • 1. Ions w/ higher charges attract/ repel more strongly than lower charges
    • 2. Smaller ions attract/ repel more strongly b/c the disance btwn charges is shorter
  9. Diatomic Molecules
    Pairs of atoms that are chemically bound and behave as an independent unit.
  10. Polyatomic Ions
    2 or more atoms bonded covalently and have a net positive or negative charge.
  11. H+
    Hydrogen
  12. Li+
    Lithium
  13. Na+
    Sodium
  14. K+
    Potassium
  15. Cs+
    Cesium
  16. Ag+
    Silver
  17. Al+3
    Aluminum
  18. Mg+2
    Magnesium
  19. Ca+2
    Calcium
  20. Sr+2
    Strontium
  21. Ba+2
    Barium
  22. Zn+2
    Zinc
  23. Cd+2
    Cadium
  24. H-
    Hydride
  25. F-
    Flouride
  26. Cl-
    Chloride
  27. Br-
    Bromide
  28. I-
    Iodine
  29. O-2
    Oxide
  30. S-2
    Sulfide
  31. N-3
    Nitride
  32. Empirical Formula
    • 1) Convert percentages to grams
    • 2) Do ratios for grames to moles
    • 3) Divide by smallest #
    • 4) Write formula with subscripts
    • 5) All subscripts must be integers- adjust as necessary
  33. Molecular Formula
    • 1) Convert % to grams
    • 2) divide grams by element's amu
    • 3) convert from grams to mole (no math)
    • 4) divide each answer by smallest
    • 5) add amus of empirical formula
    • 6) divide molecular weight/ amus
    • 7) multiply empirical formula by total from #6
  34. Structural Formula
    Shows number of atoms and bonds between them.
  35. -ium
    cation ending for metal names
  36. -ide
    anion ending for nonmetal
  37. Naming Binary Ionic Compound
    • 1) Cation name first
    • 2) add -ide to nonmetal
    • 3) place anion last
  38. Subscript
    • Refers to element preceding it
    • the subscript '1' is implied from symbol
    • The charge of one ion becomes he superscript of the other
  39. Oxoan-ions
    • Those in which an elment, usually nonmetal, is bonded to one or more oxygen atoms.
    • More 0 atoms- ate
    • Less O atoms - ite
  40. NH4+
    Ammonium
  41. H3O+
    Hydronium
  42. CH3COO-
    Acetate
  43. C2H3O2
    Acetate
  44. ClO2-
    Chlorite
  45. ClO4-
    Perchlorate
  46. CN-
    Cyanide
  47. OH-
    Hydroxide
  48. ClO3
    Chlorate
  49. NO2
    Nitrite
  50. MnO4-
    Permanganate
  51. HCO3-
    Hydrogen Carbonate
  52. CO3-2
    Carbonate
  53. CrO4
    Chromate
  54. Cr2O7-2
    Dichromate
  55. PO4-3
    Phosphate
  56. O2-2
    Peroxide
  57. HPO4-2
    Hydrogen Phosphate
  58. SO3-2
    Sulfite
  59. SO4-2
    Sulfate
  60. HSO4-
    Hydrogen Sulfate
  61. Molecular Mass
    Sum of Atomic Masses
  62. Reactants
    • Substances that react during change.
    • Placed to LEFT of arrow
  63. Products
    • All substances produced.
    • Placed to RIGHT of arrow.
  64. Group 1A
    Bonds with Group 7AMakes a salt
  65. Group 2A
    Bonds with group 6AForms a salt
  66. Isimers
    Molecules with same chemical formul but different structural formulas
  67. Soluable
    I would rather be surrounded by water.
  68. Must have to find Formula Weight and Molecular Weight
    Chemical formula and Periodic table
  69. To find Molecular Formula
    • 1) Find % Composition then Empirical Formula2) Molecualr Weight or
    • molar Mass
  70. Spectator Ion
    No Change even with mixutre
  71. Oxidation
    • 1) Gain in Oxygen
    • 2) Loss of
    • 3) Loss of Electrons

    LEO
  72. Reduction
    • 1) Loss of Oxygen
    • 2) Gain of Hydrogen
    • 3) Gain of Electrons

    GER
  73. To write compounds
    • 1) write compounds largest to smallest moving across table
    • 2) go from top to bottom in case of a tie
  74. Molecular Formula
    • 1) Convert % to grams
    • 2) Divide gramst by element's amu
    • 3) Convert from g to mole (no math)
    • 4) Divide each answer by smallest
    • 5) Add amus of Empirical Formula
    • 6) Divide Molecular Weight/ amus
    • 7) Multiply empirical formula by total from #6
  75. Br2
    Brown Liquid
  76. I2
    soL2id
  77. Metals
    • Lose electrons easily
    • positive ions
  78. Nonmetals
    gain electrons, for negative ions
  79. Charge of Monatomic Ions
    • IA-IIIA= +1-+3 respectively, electrons lost = to group number
    • IB-IIB= electrons lost = group #
    • IIIB-VIIIB= +2 or +3
    • Max # of electons gained by nonmetals- 8-group #
  80. Molecule Mass
    Sum of the masses of the atoms
  81. Nonelectrolytes
    • Do not produce ions in solution and do not yield conducting solutions
    • Alcohol, sugar, water
  82. Strong Electrolyes
    • Dissociate or ionize 100% in aqueous solution
    • Yield very conducting solutions at reasonable concentrations.
    • Salts, strong acids, strong bases
  83. Dissociate
    Ions already exist, water allows them to 'drift apart
  84. Ionize
    Ions don't already exist. polar compounds have 'tendency to form ions
  85. Oxidation numbers
    • All have a number of 0
    • For single atom, O.N. is = to charge of ion
  86. Oxidation Number of H
    • H+
    • Unless in metal hydride (NaH-, CaH2-), then it is -1
  87. Oxidation number of O
    • -2
    • Unluss O is peroxide (H2O2, NA2O2), Then it is -1
  88. Radioactive Element
    • Atomic Nuclei are unstable
    • Nucleus is not balanced and there is continuous change
    • Usually rare metals
  89. Br
    • Boron
    • Metalloid
  90. Si
    • Silicon
    • Metalloid
  91. As
    • Arsenic
    • Metalloid
  92. Te
    • Tellurium
    • Metalloid

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