Retrograde labelling of muscles revealed origin of cortico-motoneurone cells across M1 central sulcus and somatosensory cortex.
Lawrence & Kuypers (1968)
Pyramidotomy in monkeys causes permanent loss of fine digit control.
MEP size after M1 TMS in stroke victims correlates with precision grip performance.
Heffner & Masterton (1975)
Dexterity index correlates with ventral horn corticospinal innervation density.
Muir & Lemon (1983)
Macaque pyramidal tract neurone identified with spike triggered averaging fires in precision grip but not power grip.
Maier et al. (1998)
C5 lesion abolishes muscle activity with CST stimulation (no compensation from C3-4 propriospinal tract)
Davere et al. (2008, 2009)
PMv activation by TMS inhibits M1 at rest but facilitates it when a precision grip is being prepared. TMS of PMv and M1 with appropriate interval induced MEPs in specific hand muscles in proportion to the activation later seen when making the actual grasp
Gallese et al. (1996) & Rizzolatti et al. (1996)
Discovered mirror neurones in F5 in macaques.
Kohler et al (2002)
Macaque F5 mirror neurones also respond to auditory information associated with an action (such as paper ripping or nut cracking).
Umilta et al (2001)
Macaque F5 mirror neurones respond to implied grasps obscured behind a screen.
Fogassi et al. (2005)
Macaque inferior parietal lobule (IPL) mirror neurones respond selectively to purpose, grasping for eating vs. for moving.
Iocoboni et al (1999)
fMRI activity in LIFG and PM when imitating finger movements relative to crosses signalling finger movements.
Heiser et al. (2003)
Inhibitory TMS on LIFG impairs imitative finger button presses.
Hauk et al. (2004)
fMRI activity in M1 in response to lick flick kick in sematopically appropriate places.
Carr et al. (2003)
fMRI in superior temporal and inferior frontal lobes when imitating or observing emotive face expressions.
Cheng et al (2008)
Women suppress motor cortex mu rhythm more than men when observing hand movements.