Anatomy 7 - Muscular System

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Anatomy 7 - Muscular System
2014-01-14 12:23:51
muscular system muscles

Chapter 7 - muscular system
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  1. What are the three muscle groups?
    Skeletal muscles

    Smooth muscles/visceral

    Cardiac muscles
  2. Muscle Group #1: Skeletal muscles
    Characteristic:  Striated

    Movement type: Voluntary

    Example: biceps, quadriceps, pectoral
  3. Muscle Group #2: Smooth Muscle (visceral)
    Characteristic: non-striated

    Movement type: Involuntary

    Example:  stomach, intestines, blood vessels
  4. Muscle Group #3: Cardiac muscle
    Characteristic: Striated

    Movement type: Involuntary

    Example: Heart (the only cardiac muscle)
  5. 5 Functions of the Muscular system:
    • - Maintain posture
    • - Movement
    • - Protect internal organs
    • - Generate heat
    • - Open and close body openings (sphincters)
  6. 600 muscles make up what percentage of body weight?
  7. Characteristics of skeletal muscle fibers:
    Fibers are multinecleated (multiple nucleus)

    Fibers are striated, dark and light fibers

    Fibers are elongated or tubular in shape
  8. Origin:
    Where the muscle is attached, end of the muscle attached to the less moveable part of the bone
  9. Insertion:
    Where the tendon is attached, end of the muscle attached to the MORE moveable part of the bone
  10. Action:
    The thick, middle part of the muscle
  11. Frotalis muscle:
  12. Trapezius muscle:
    top of shoulder to neck
  13. Deltoid muscle
    round of shoulder
  14. pectoralis major
    large chest muscle
  15. triceps brachii
    tricep, outer arm
  16. biceps brachii
    bicep, inner arm
  17. latissimus dorsi
    long muscle running down sides of back
  18. sartorius
    long inner thigh
  19. biceps femoris
    • back of thigh
    • * one of the hamstring muscles
  20. rectus femorus
    • front of thigh
    • * one of the quadraceps
  21. gastrocnemius
    inner calf muscle
  22. 5 examples of flexion and extension ROM:
    • vertebrae
    • shoulder
    • elbow
    • hip
    • knee
  23. 2 examples of abdution and adduction ROM:
    • Shoulder
    • Hip
  24. Example of rotation ROM:
  25. 2 examples of Circumduction
    (following a circular path)
    • Shoulder
    • Hip
  26. 1 example of pronation/supination
  27. 1 example of inversion/eversion
  28. Agonist
    Primary Mover
  29. Synergistic
    Assists Primary Mover
  30. Antagonist
    Opposite muscle
  31. Muscle that straightens a joint:
    Extensor Muscle
  32. Muscle that Bends the Joint
    Flexor Muscle
  33. Sarcomeres:
    Contractile unit that causes contraction
  34. Order of Contraction:
    • Impulse from Motor Neuron
    • Release Acetylcholine
    • Opens sodium channels
    • Muscle contraction
  35. Myalgia:
    Pain or tenderness in a muscle
  36. Ataxia:
    Irregular muscle action or lack of coordination
  37. Paralysis:
    Partial or total loss of voluntary muscle movement
  38. Spasm:
    Involuntary sudden contraction of a muscle
  39. Sprain:
    tears or breaks in LIGAMENTS
  40. Strains:
    Tear or injury in muscle or tendon
  41. Hernia:
    Tear in muscle wall and organ protrudes through
  42. Muscular Dystrophy:
    Inherited muscular disease in which muscle fibers degenerate and become weak
  43. Electromyography:
    how to diagnose muscular disorders
  44. Myasthenia gravis:
    neuromuscular disease where patient exhibits gradually increasing profound muscle weakness, drooping eye lids, progressive paralysis
  45. Guillain-Barre syndrome:
    flaccid paralysis (limp muscles) and loss of reflexes. Starts in feet and progresses towards head
  46. Tetanus:
    Rigid paralysis
  47. Cramp:
    longer lasting muscle spasm
  48. ACL (Anterior Cruiciate Ligament):
    • Major knee ligament
    • Maintains Stability
    • Torn requires surgery
  49. 3 Common Back Injuries:
    1. Lumbar back pain (most common)

    2. Herniated disk: cartilage is pushed out of place creating pinched nerve

    3. Sciatica: Inflammation of sciatic nerve caused by herniated disk
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