A&P Ch 1: An Overview of Anatomy & Physiology

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CharlotteG
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255262
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A&P Ch 1: An Overview of Anatomy & Physiology
Updated:
2014-01-06 21:13:15
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anatomy physiology
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chapter one intro
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  1. Anatomy
    studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
  2. physiology
    concerns the function of the body
  3. gross/microscopic anatomy
    is the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys
  4. regional anatomy
    all the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves etc.) in a particular region of the boy such as the abdomen or leg are examined at the same time
  5. systemic anatomy
    body structure is studied system by system
  6. surface anatomy
    the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface; when you identify the bulging muscles beneath a bodybuilder's skin, and clinicians use it to locate appropriate blood vessels in which to feel pulses and draw blood
  7. microscopic anatomy
    deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye, for most studies, exceedingly thin slices of body tissues are stained and mounted on glass slides to be examined under the microscope
  8. cytology
    considers the cells of the body
  9. histology
    the study of tissues
  10. developmental anatomy
    traces structural changes that occur in the boy throughout the life span
  11. embryology
    a subdivision  of developmental anatomy, concerns developmental anatomy, concerns changes that occur before birth
  12. pathological anatomy
    studies structural changes caused by disease
  13. radiographic anatomy
    studies internal structures as visualized X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures
  14. palpation
    feeling organs with your hands
  15. auscultation
    listening to organ sounds with a stethoscope
  16. renal physiology
    concerns kidney function and urine production
  17. neurophysiology
    explains the workings of the nervous system
  18. cardiovascular physiology
    examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
  19. principle of complementarity of structure and function
    form follows function
  20. chemical level
    at this level, atoms, tiny building block of matter, combine to form molecules such as water and proteins; molecules, in turn, associate in specific ways to form organelles, basic components of the microscopic cells
  21. cellular level
    cells are the smallest units of living things; all cells have some common functions but individual cells vary widely in size and shape, reflecting their unique functions in the body
  22. tissue level
    tissues are groups of similar cells that have a common function. The 4 basic tissue types in the human body are epithelium (covers the body surface and lines its cavities), muscle (provides movement), connective tissue (supports and protects body organs) and nervous tissue ( provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses).
  23. organ
    a discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (4 is more common) that performs a specific function for the body;a specialized functional center responsible for a necessary activity that no other organ can perform [liver, brain, stomach]
  24. organ level
    • extremely complex functions become possible ex. stomach: 
    • - its lining is an epithelium that produces digestive juices
    • -the bulk of its wall is muscle, which churns mixes stomach contents (food)
    • -its connective tissue reinforces the soft muscular walls
    • -its nerve fibers increase digestive activity by stimulating the muscle to contract more vigorously and the glands to secrete more digestive juices
  25. organ system level
    • organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose make up an organ system 
    • ex: the heart and blood vessels of the cardiovascular system circulate blood continuously to carry oxygen and nutrients to all body cells
  26. organismal level
    represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive
  27. necessary life functions
    • 1) maintain their boundaries
    • 2) movement 
    • 3) responsiveness
    • 4) digestion 
    • 5) metabolism
    • 6) excretion 
    • 7) reproduction
    • 8) growth
  28. contractility
    muscle cells ability to move by shortening
  29. integumentary system
    • form the external body coverings and protects deeper tissues from injury.
    • Synthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands
  30. skeletal system
    • protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement.
    • Blood cells are formed within bones. 
    • Bones are minerals
  31. muscular system
    • allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
    • maintains posture and produces heat
  32. nervous system
    as the fast acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
  33. endocrine system
    glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells
  34. cardiovascular system
    blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood

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