Chapter 9 Pathology

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ltrahan81
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Chapter 9 Pathology
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2014-01-05 22:46:37
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Chapter 9 Pathology
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  1. slow heartbeat, with ventricular contractions less than  60 bpm
    bradycardia
  2. abnormal sound heard on auscultation. usually a blowing or swishing sound, higher pitched than a murmur. may be described as cardiac or arterial
    cardiac bruit
  3. abnormal heart sound heard during systole, diastole, or both, which may be described as a gentle blowing, fluttering, or humming sound
    cardiac murmur
  4. heart pain that may be described as atypical or ischemic. atypical pain is a stabbing or burning pain that is variable in location and intensity and unrelated to exertion. ischemic pain is a pressing, squeezing, or weightlike cardiac pain caused by a decreased blood supply that usually last only minutes
    cardialgia
  5. lack of oxygen in blood, seen as a bluish or grayish discoloration of skin, nail beds, and/or lips
    cyanosis
  6. profuse secretion of sweat.
    diaphoresis / hyperhidrosis
  7. difficult and/or painful breathing; it is experienced when effort is expended
    dyspnea; dyspnea on exertion (DOE)
  8. abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues.
    edema
  9. an accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the tissues due to inadequate drainage
    lymphedema
  10. vomiting. forcible or involuntary emptying of the stomach through the mouth
    emesis
  11. sensation that accompanies the urge to vomit, but does not always lead to vomiting
    nausea
  12. difficulty with breathing relieved only when the patient is in an upright position
    orthopenea
  13. paleness of skin and/or mucous membranes. on darker pigmented skin, it may be noted on the inner surfaces of the lower eyelids or the nail beds
    pallor
  14. pounding or racing of the heart, such that the patient is aware of his/her heartbeat
    palpitations
  15. excessive amount of blood in the pulmonary vessels. usually associated with heart failure
    pulmonary congestion
  16. breathlessness, air hunger
    shortness of breath (SOB)
  17. fainting, loss of consciousness
    syncope
  18. rapid heartbeat, more than 100 bpm
    tachycardia
  19. congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta.
    coarctation of the aorta
  20. congenital condition in which the heart is located in the right side (instead of the left) side of the thoracic cavity
    dextrocardia
  21. condition whereby the heart is in the normal left side of the thoracic cavity, but the remaining organs are transposed to the side opposite to their normal position
    levocardia
  22. abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth, most often in premature infants.
    patent ductus arteriosus / patent ductus Botallo
  23. any abnormality of the walls between the heart chambers. these defects can be either congenital or acquired
    septal defect
  24. an abnormal opening in the wall between the upper chambers of the heart
    atrial septal defect (ASD)
  25. an abnormal opening in the wall between the lower two chambers of the heart
    ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  26. congenital cardiac anomaly that consist of four defects: pulmonic stenosis; ventricular septal defect; malposition of the aorta, so that it arises from the septal defect or the right ventricle; and right ventricular hypertrophy
    tetralogy of Fallot
  27. excessive systemic arterial blood pressure. can cause heart damage if persistent
    hypertension
  28. damage to the heart, most often the valves, as a result of an episode of an inflammatory condition, rheumatic fever. the name is a nod to the additional fluid in the joints, which are also afflicted
    rheumatic heart disease
  29. cardiac tissue death that occurs when the coronary arteries are occluded (blocked) by an atheroma (a mass of fat or lipids on the wall of an artery) or a blood clot caused by an atheroma
    acute myocarial infarction (AMI)
  30. a ballooning of the heart.
    aneurysm (of heart)

    a mural aneurysm refers to the heart wall, while a ventricular aneurysm refers specifically to the lower chambers of the heart
  31. paroxysmal chest pain or discomfort occurring when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, usually when the heart rate is accelerated.
    angina pectoris
  32. a sudden chest pain that occurs regardless of activity and is indicative of a complete blockage of a coronary artery.
    • unstable angina
    • accelerating/crescendo angina
    • intermediate coronary syndrome
  33. accumulation and hardening of plaque in the coronary arteries that eventually can deprive the heart muscle of oxygen, leading to angina
    coronary (artery) atherosclerosis / coronary artery disease (CAD)
  34. lack of blood supply to tissues caused by a blockage or hemorrhage.
    ischemia
  35. sudden right ventricular failure due to chronic pulmonary hypertension
    acute cor pulmonale
  36. narrowing of the aortic valve, which may be acquired or congenital
    aortic stenosis
  37. compression of heart due to buildup of fluid in pericardium
    cardiac tamponade
  38. enlargement of the heart.
    cardiomegaly

    may also be termed cardiac hyptertrophy if referring to excessive development of the heart
  39. disease of heart muscle
    cardiomyopathy / myocardiopathy
  40. inflammation of the inner lining of the heart with involvement of one or more of the valves
    endocarditis
  41. inability of the heart muscle to pump blood efficiently, so that it becomes overloaded. the heart enlarges with unpumped blood, and the lungs fill with fluid
    heart failure (HF) / congestive heart failure (CHF)
  42. backflow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium in systole across a diseased valve. it may be the result of congenital valve abnormalities, rheumatic fever, or mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    mitral regurgitation (MR)
  43. narrowing of the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle caused by adhesions on the leaflets of the valve, usually the result of recurrent episodes of rheumatic endocarditis. left atrial hypertrophy develops and may be followed by right-sided heart failure and pulmonary edema (cor pulmonale)
    mitral stenosis (MS)
  44. protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole
    mitral valve proplapse (MVP)
  45. inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, with the possibility of pericardial effusion
    pericarditis
  46. a blockage of one of the pulmonary vessels accompanied by death of lung tissue
    pulmonary embolism (PE) infarction
  47. excessive pulmonary arterial blood pressure
    pulmonary hypertension
  48. relatively uncommon narrowing of the tricuspid valve associated with lesions of other valves caused by rheumatic fever. symptoms include jugular vein distention and pulmonary congestion
    tricuspid stenosis (TS)
  49. abnormal variation from the normal heartbeat rhythm.
    arrhythmia / dysthythmia
  50. normal heart rate
    normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
  51. partial or complete heart block that is the result of a lack of electrical communication between the atria and the ventricles
    atrioventricular block / heart block
  52. incomplete electrical conduction in the bundle branches, either left or right
    bundle branch block (BBB)
  53. heartbeats that occur outside of a normal rhythm
    ectopic beats
  54. irregular contractions of the atria
    atrial ectopic beats (AEB) / premature atrial contractions (PAC)
  55. irregular contractions of the ventricles. are not always considered pathologic
    ventricular ectopic beats / premature ventricular contractions (PVC)
  56. extremely rapid and irregular contractions (300-600/min) occuring with or without an underlying cardiovascular disorder, such as coronary artery disease
    fibrillation
  57. the most common type of cardiac arrthymia
    atrial fibrillation (AF)
  58. rapid, irregular ventricle contractions; may be fatal unless reversed
    ventricular fibrillation
  59. extremely rapid but regular heartbeat (250-350).
    flutter
  60. rapid, regular atrial rhythm
    atrial flutter
  61. any abnormality of the sinus node that may include the necessity of an implantable pacemaker
    sick sinus syndrome (SSS)
  62. condition of ventricular contractions > 100 bpm
    ventricular tachycardia
  63. lack or impairment of the ability to form or understand speech.
    aphasia
  64. inability to perform purposeful movements or to use objects appropiately
    apraxia
  65. a condition of a lack of coordination
    ataxia
  66. tissue death within the brain. may be the result of a hemorrhage or a blockage (thrombosis or embolus)
    cerebral infarction / cerebrovascular accident / stroke
  67. any escape of blood within the tissues of the brain
    intracerebral hemorrhage
  68. paralysis of one limb on the left or right side of the body.
    monoplegia
  69. an escape of blood into the cavity between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater covering the CNS
    subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)
  70. localized dilation of the aorta caused by a congnital or acquired weakness in the wall of the vessel due to atherosclerosis or hypertension. If referred to as dissecting, it has a tear
    aortic aneurysm
  71. disease in which the arterial walls become thickened and lose their elasticity, without the presence of atheromas
    arteriosclerosis
  72. cramplike pains in the calves resulting in limping, caused by poor circulation in the leg muscles
    intermittent claudication
  73. blockage of blood flow to the extremities. acute or chronic conditions may be present, but patients with both types of conditions are likely to have underlying atherosclerosis.
    peripheral arterial occlusion
  74. any vascular disorder limited to the extremities; may affect not only the arteries and veins but also the lymphatics
    peripheral vascular disease
  75. idiopathic disease - of unknown cause - of the peripheral vascular system that causes bilateral intermittent cyanosis/erythema/numbness of the distal ends of the fingers and toe. occurs almost exclusively in young women
    Raynaud's syndrome
  76. inflammation of the blood vessels
    vasculitis / angiitis
  77. varicose veins that appear at the lower end of the esophagus as a result of portal hypertension. they are superficial and may cause ulceration and bleeding
    esophageal varices
  78. varicose condition of the external or internal rectal veins that cause painful swellings at the anus
    hemorrhoid
  79. inflammation of either deep veins (deep veing thrombosis or DVT) or superficial veins (superficial vein thrombosis or SVT), with the formation of one or more blood clots. if no blood clot, termed simply phlebitis
    thrombophlebitis
  80. elongated, dilated, superficial veins (varices) with incompetent valves that permit reverse blood flow. these veins appear in various parts of the anatomy.
    varicose veins
  81. death of tissue due to lack of blood supply
    gangrene
  82. condition of below normal blood pressure.
    hypotension
  83. occurs when a patient experiences an episode of low blood pressure upon rising to a standing position
    orthostatic-hypotension
  84. inflammation of a lymph node
    lymphadenitis
  85. disease of the lymph nodes or vessels that may be localized or generalized
    lymphadenopathy
  86. a superficial dilation of lymphatic vessels
    lymphangiectasis
  87. inflammation of lymph vessels
    lymphangitis
  88. accumulation of lymphatic fluid and resultant swelling caused by obstruction, removal, or hypoplasia of lymph vessels
    lymphedema
  89. enlargement of the spleen
    splenomegaly
  90. benign growth usually occurring on the interatrial septum
    atrial myxoma
  91. noncancerous tumor of the blood vessels. may be congenital ("stork bite") or may develop later in life
    hemangioma
  92. noncancerous tumor of epithelial origin that is often associated with myasthenia gravis
    thymoma
  93. rare cancer of the heart usually originating in the left atrium
    cardiac myxosarcoma
  94. rare cancer of the cells that line the blood vessels
    hemangiosarcoma
  95. this cancer is diagnosed by the detection of a type of cell specific only to this disorder: Reed-Sternberg cells
    Hodgkin lymphoma / Hodgkin disease
  96. a collection of all lymphatic cancers but Hodgkin lymphomas. this type is the more numerous of the two lymphomas and is the sixth most common type of cancer in the US
    non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  97. this rare malignancy of the thymus gland is particulary invasive and, unlike its benign form, is not associated with autoimmune disorders
    thymoma, malignant

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