How is backup handled differently for virtual environments vs. physical environments?
Physical: one agent backing up to a remote agent on a different system – file access is easier because of less contention;
Virtual: higher contention so less opp to access
file, however, can
o Image and file level
o Bare metal recovery is easier bec. always
o Datastore access means no agent is needed and different system can do the backup
What is VDP?
vSphere Data Protection is built on VADP and CBT (Changed Block Tracking) and delivers full machine and File-Level restore without an agent.
How many VMs can there be per VDP appliance? How many VDP appliances can there be per vCenter Server?
10 appliances per vCenter Server
100 VMs per appliance
How large can a VDP deduplication datastore be? What are the types of deduplication destinations?
- 2 TB of deduplicated storage
- SCSI hotadd (only in vsphere enterprise)
What are the VDP requirements?
Vcenter server 5.1 or higher
-4 vcpus; 4GB of Ram
-850 GB /1.6 TB / 3.1 TB hard drives
-SLES 11 64-bit
What are the major steps VDP goes through when backing up a system?
Integrity Check verifies data integrity of new restore points on dedup store every 24 hour; once a week checks all restore points.
Recatalog ensures the catalog of restore points is synched with the dedupe store. Runs when an inconsistency is detected between catalog and dedupe store. No other operation is allowed on the dedupe store.
Reclaim reclaims space on dedup store. Runs daily/as needed; backups cannot happen but restores can
How do you enable changed block tracking for a VM?
- Vsphere 4.0: Add to VM configuration;
o scsi:#.ctkEnabled=true (#=disk controller followed by the disk target number)
- Vsphere 5.1: Add to VM configuration;
o scsi:#.ctkEnabled=true(#=disk controller followed by the disk target number)
What clients can be used with VDP?
1. VDP is only available from Web client.
2. File Level Restore available by logging into appliance with port 8580
Other than the clients, what software do you need to run RDP?
1. Requires vmware tool to be insallted
2. Windows NTFS and Linux LVM, ext2 ext3 are supported
What services should you stop before backing up a vCenter Server System?
1. VMware vCenter Server
2. VMware VCMSDS (the Active Directory Application mode database
3.Database service (SQL, Oracle, DB)
Also backup the SSL certs and the vpxd.cfg files.
What command do you use to backup an esxi host?
Backup you host config after changing the configuration or upgrading the ESXi Image
How do you limit what IP addresses are allowed to access ESXi for management purposes?
How do you enable login to ESXi using an account found in Active Directory?
Host -> Configuration tab -> Authenticaiton Service -> properties >select directory service
What are the features of vShield App, Edge, Zones and Endpoint?
vShield provides dge security, vApp security, and facilitates anti-virus protection. It consists of:
vShield Manager – manages vShild products
vShield Edge – protects permimter of virtual data center
vShield App with Data Security – firewall (hypervisor based, app aware) protects apps from threats by setting firewalls at the nic level and creating logical zones to protect apps without vlans. It also scans workloads to report compliance violations as well
VShield Endpoint – offloads antivirus and anti-malware agent processor to a dedicated virtual appliance.
What does a role contain?
A set of privileges.
What is a privileges?
Defines an action that can be performed
What is a permission?
User/Group + Role + Object
(who + what they can do + where they can do it)
What Active Directory group must I be a member of in order to have the administrator role in vSphere?
Domain Administrators have Admin Privileges
ESX Admin also have Admin Privileges
When does memory compression happen?When does memory compression happen?
When contention is too high to avoid swapping out to a VM swap file.
What allows you to see ESXi-related counters when you're running Microsoft Perfmon?
What is an alarm trigger?
Trigger + action - A notification that occurs in response to selected events or conditions that occur with an object in the inventory.
Name 3 things an alarm can cause to happen
Send notification trap
Run a command
What is FDM?
Fault Domain Manager is the service that starts on the member hosts of an HA cluster
Can both Intel and AMD hosts be in the same EVC cluster?
What are the major workflow steps in using Update Manager? Explain each.
1. Create a baseline
2. Attach to an object
3. Scan for updates
4. View compliance
What is a baseline?
What Host/VMs/Vas are evaluated against
They can be of the specific types - upgrade, extension or patch
They contain patches, extension or upgrade
What is a baseline group?
Collection of baselines
What are the two types of baselines?
Fixed: Don’t change even if new patches are added to the repository, such as compliances against a computer worm.
Dynamic: Updated when new patches meeting specific criteria are added to the repository., such as applying updates to an application across the company.
Can Update Manager use the same database that vCenter uses?
List the hardware requirements to install ESXi.
- 2 Gbyte of memory
- 2 Core 2 Ghz necessary
- No storage size requirements
- 1G /1G
- SCSI Controller /SCSI disk
- Internal Raid Controller / local RAID LUN
What are the two types of disks that ESXi can use?
SATA / SCSI
How do you configure boot from SAN?
Supported protocols: FC, FCOE, iSCSI software and dependent hardware (NOT: hardware independent iscsi or software iscsi)
Multipathing to a boot lun only on an active/active array.
o Configure diagnostic partition on shared SAN LUN; zone the lun if more than one host uses it so all can access the LUN.
Each server requires 100 MB and is mapped to a diagnostic slot. Best Practice: At least 16 slots of disk if server share a diagnostic partiion.
If servers share the same diagnostic slot this can lead to problems, such as, ESXi hosts performing core dumps at the same time.
If using iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (IBFT) to boot the host from a SAN LUN then cannot setup diagnostic partition on the SAN LUN; must use the VMWare vSpehre management Assistant (vMA) to collect diagnostic information from your host.
o Configure exclusive access to own boot LUN
o Different LUNs for VMFs datastore and boot partitions
o Change BIOS on Host
List the hardware and software requirements for installing vCenter Server.
- 2 64-bit CPUs
- 4 GB of memory
- 1G / 10G NIC
- SATA/ SCSI Drives
- At least 4GB of disk
- Database: oracle, db2 or sql server
- 64-bit os
- Same as above, but 100GB of disk
What components do you install during the vCenter installation (other than vCenter Server)?
- SSO server – can be on separate server
- inventory server – can be on separate server
- Database server– can be on separate server
- vSphere Web Client
- vSphere Update Manager
How many hosts can you manage with the default SQL Server 2008 Express database in vCenter?
5 hosts and 50 VMs
Define the configuration steps that are done at the console of the vCenter Virtual Appliance (Console, not browser-based)
- import the ovf template
Configure the Network
- “configure network” - enter network settings and reboot
Check the time (might default to host time if done right) otherwise…