MOA: ring substituted amphetamine. Effects related to amphetamine type drugs plus feelings of closeness to others, facilitation of relationships, and empathy. Potent releaser/re-uptake inhibitor of presynaptic serotonin (receptor agonist, inhibits tryptophan hydroxylase), dopamine, and norepinepherine.
- Metabolism: Tmax at 2 hrs, high volume of distribution, T1/2 of 8-9 hrs. 2 main metabolic pathways
- 1) O-demethylation--> COMT methylation
- and/or glucuronide/sulfate conjugation
- 2) N-dealkylation--> deamination--> oxidation to benzoic acid derivatives conjugated with glycine
Excretion: 80% eliminated after hepatic metabolism, 20% excreted unchanged in urine.
Adverse effects: Hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, mid to long-term neurotoxic effects (cognitive and behavioral)