Pharmacology I

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RNnrod123
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255430
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Pharmacology I
Updated:
2014-01-16 10:39:31
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pharmacology
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pharmacology
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  1. BIOTECHNOLOGY
    process that may involve manipulating deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) and recombining genes into hybrid molecules that can be inserted into living organisms (often Escherichia coli bacteria) and repeatedly reproduced
  2. BRAND (TRADE) NAME
    manufacturer's chosen name for a drug, which is protected by a patent
  3. CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES
    drugs that are categorized by federal law according to therapeutic usefulness and potential for abuse; also known as scheduled drugs
  4. DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS
    groups of medications that are classified according to their effects on particular body systems, their therapeutic uses, and their chemical characteristics
  5. GENERIC NAME
    chemical or official name of the drug that is independent of the manufacturer and often indicates the drug group
  6. OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) DRUGS
    medications available for purchase without a prescription
  7. PHARMACOECONOMICS
    costs of drug therapy, including costs of purchasing, dispensing, storage, administration, and laboratory and other tests used to monitor patient responses; also considers losses due to expiration
  8. PHARMACOTHERAPY
    use of drugs to prevent, diagnose, or treat signs, symptoms and disease processes
  9. PLACEBO
    inert substance containing no medication and given to reinforce a person's expectation to improve
  10. PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
    medications that are ordered in writing by a licensed health care provider
  11. PROTOTYPE
    often the first drug of a particular drug class to be developed; usually the standard against which newer, similar drugs are compared
  12. ANTAGONIST
    drug that inhibits cell function by occupying receptor sites
  13. ANTIDOTE
    substance that relieves, prevents, or counteracts the effects of a poison
  14. BIOAVAILABILITY
    portion of a drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation and is available to act on body cells
  15. BIOTRANSFORMATION
    when drugs are altered from their original form into a new form by the body; also referred to as metabolism
  16. DISTRIBUTION
    transport of drug molecules within the body; after a drug is injected or absorbed into the bloodstream, it is carried by the blood and tissue fluids to its sites of action, metabolism, & excretion
  17. ENTEROHEPATIC RECIRCULATION
    drugs or metabolites that are excreted in bile, reabsorbed from the small intestine, returned to the liver, metabolized, and eventually excreted in urine.
  18. ABSORPTION
    process that occurs from the time a drug enters the body to the time it enters the bloodstream to be circulated
  19. AGONIST
    drug that produces effects similar to those produced by naturally occurring hormones, neurotransmitters, and other substances
  20. ENZYME INDUCTION
    production of larger amounts of drug-metabolizing enzymes by liver cells; process accelerates drug metabolism because larger amounts of the enzymes (and more binding sites) allow larger amounts of a drug to be metabolized during a given time
  21. ENZYME INHIBITION
    process in which a molecule binds to enzymes and inhibits their activity
  22. EXCRETION
    elimination of a drug from the body; effective excretion requires adequate functioning of the circulatory system and of the organs of excretion (kidneys, bowel, lungs, skin)
  23. FIRST-PASS EFFECT
    initial metabolism of some oral drugs as they are carried from the intestine to the liver by the portal circulatory system prior to reaching the systemic circulation for distribution to site of action
  24. HYPERSENSITIVITY
    immune-mediated reaction to a drug
  25. LOADING DOSE
    dose larger than the regular prescribed daily dosage of a medication; used to attain a therapeutic blood level
  26. MAINTENANCE DOSE
    quantity of drug that is needed to keep blood levels and/or tissue levels at a steady state or constant level
  27. NEPHROTOXICITY
    toxic or damaging effect of a substance on the kidney; potentially serious because renal damage interferes with drug excretion, causing drug accumulation and increased adverse effects
  28. PHARMACODYNAMICS
    reactions between living systems and drugs; drug actions on target cells and the resulting alterations in cellular biochemical reactions and functions
  29. PHARMACOKINETICS
    drug movement through the body to reach sites of action, metabolism, and excretion
  30. PRODRUGS
    initially inactive drugs that exert no pharmacologic effects until they are metabolized
  31. SERUM DRUG LEVEL
    laboratory measurement of the amount of a drug in the blood at a particular time
  32. SERUM HALF-LIFE
    time required for the serum concentration of a drug to decrease by 50%; also called elimination half-life
  33. assessment
    collection of patient data that affects drug therapy
  34. controlled-release
    oral tablet or capsule formulations that maintain consistent serum drug levels
  35. dosage form
    form in which drugs are manufactured; includes elixirs, tablets, capsules, suppositories, prenteral drugs, & transdermal systems
  36. enteric-coated
    coating of a tablet or capsule that makes insoluble in stomach acid
  37. evaluation
    determining a patient's status in relation to stated goals & expected outcomes
  38. evidence-based practice
    scientific evidence that yields the best practice in patient care
  39. interventions
    planned nursing activities performed on a patient's behalf, including assessment, promotion of adherence to drug therapy, & solving problems related to drug therapy
  40. medication history
    list of prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, herbal supplements, or illegal substances taken by the patient (both current & past)
  41. nursing diagnosis
    description of patient problems based on assessment data
  42. nursing process
    systematic way of gathering & using information to plan & provide individualized patient care
  43. parenteral
    injected administration; subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous route
  44. planning/goals
    expected outcomes of prescribed drug therapy
  45. rights of medication administration
    assist to ensure accuracy in drug therapy; rights include right drug, right dose, right patient, right route, right time, right reason, right documentation
  46. topical
    application of drugs (solutions, ointments, creams, suppositories) to skin or mucous membranes
  47. transdermal
    absorption of drugs (skin patches) through the skin
  48. blood-brain barrier
    barrier in the central nervous system composed of capillaries with tight bonds, which acts to prevent the passage of most ions & large-molecular-weight compounds, including some drugs, from the blood to the brain
  49. body surface area
    surface of a human body expressed in square meters
  50. total body water
    amount of water within the body (both intracellular & extracellular)
  51. age-related changes
    physiological events due to increasing age, which affect drug responses
  52. older adult
    65 yrs +
  53. polypharmacy
    use of several drugs during the same period
  54. risk-to-benefit ratio
    poor outcome (adverse effects of medications) in relation to good outcome (desired medication effects); increases with increasing age
  55. abortifacients
    drugs used to terminate pregnancy up to 20 weeks after the last menstrual period
  56. eclampsia
    characterized by the onset of seizures; occurs in some women with preeclampsia
  57. galactagogues
    a category of herbs known to induce lactation or stimulate the production of breast milk in postpartum women
  58. organogenesis
    formation of organs during development
  59. oxytocics
    drugs that initiate uterine contractions, thus inducing childbirth
  60. preeclampsia
    pregnancy-induced hypertension & proteinuria
  61. preterm labor
    uterine contractions with cervical changes before 37 weeks of gestation, resulting in birth
  62. prostaglandins
    chemical mediators, such as uterotonics, that help initiate uterine contractions
  63. teratogenic
    causing abnormal embryonic or fetal development
  64. tocolytics
    drugs used to stop preterm labor
  65. uterotonics
    drugs to control postpartum bleeding

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