What are the levels of structural organization? And define.
- Chemical level : atoms combine to form molecules.
- Cellular level : cells are made up of molecules.
- Tissue level: tissues consists of similar types of cells.
- Organ level : organs are made up of different types of tissues.
- Organ system level : organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely.
- Organismal level : the human organism is made up of many organ systems.
There are two ways the body maintains boundaries between internal and external environments?
- Plasma membranes (trap nutrients in small volume, for reactions; different concentrations)
- Skin (keeps water in and UV out)
How does the body move?
- body parts move by the skeletal muscle.
- Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)
- ability to sense and respond to stimuli
- withdrawal reflex
- control of breathing rate.
- breakdown of ingested foodstuffs.
- absorption of simple molecules into blood.
- All chemical reactions that occur in body cells.
- Catabolism and anabolism.
- removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion.
- Urea, carbon dioxide, feces.
- cellular division for growth or repair
- production of offsprings.
- increase in size of a body part or of organism.
what forms the the Integumentary system?
what does it synthesize?
-Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury.
-synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
Function of skeletal system?
What are formed within bones?
What do bones store?
-Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement.
-Blood cells are formed within bones.
-Bones store minerals.
What does the muscular system do?
What does it maintain?
What does it produce?
- allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion and facial expression.
- maintains posture.
- produces heat.
What is the nervous system?
the fast-acting control system of the body. It responds to internal and external changes by activation appropriate muscles and glands.
What is the endocrine system?
- contains glands that secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction and nutrients
What is the cardiovascular system?
includes blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes etc.
The heart pumps blood.
What's the lymphatic system/immunity?
- picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood. Disposes debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
What does the respiratory system do?
keeps blood constantly supplies with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
Gaseous exchange occurs through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
What is the digestive system?
breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
What's the urinary system?
It eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of blood.
We need 5 things to survive. What are they?
- Nutrients : chemicals for energy and cell building.
- Oxygen : essential for energy release (ATP production)
- Water : environment of chemical reactions. Fluid base for secretions and exertions.
- Normal body temperature (37*C) This affects rate of chemical reactions.
- Appropriate atmospheric pressure : adequate breathing and gas exchange in lungs.
What is homeostasis?
- Maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in environment.
- A dynamic state of equilibrium (not unchanging, rather fluctuations around a set point)
- Maintained by contributions of all organ systems.
What are the three components of a control mechanism? Go into detail.
- Receptor: monitors environment (internal or external and responds to stimuli (something that causes change in controlled variables.)
- Control center: determines set point at which variable is maintained.
- Effector: receives output form control center, provides means to respond.
Things leading up to the control center *picture left side of see-saw*
1. stimulus : produces a change.
2. receptor: detects change
3. Input : information sent along the afferent pathway to the control center.
things leading to the response *picture right side of see-saw*
4. output : information sent along the efferent pathway
5. response : effector feedback to reduce the effect of stimulus.
What's interesting about the negative feedback?
What type of response does it put forth?
Give an example.
- most feedback mechanism in the body.
- response recedes of shuts off original stimulus.
- Examples : regulation of temperature of the body. Regulation of glucose by insulin.
What's a positive feedback? examples?
- response enhances of exaggerates original
- ex: enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin. Platelet plug formation and blood clotting.