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What's the difference between Anatomy and Physiology?
Anatomy: Study of structure of body parts, their relationships to one another.
Physiology: Study of the function of the body. Has subdivisions based on organ systems. Often focuses on cellular and molecular level.
There are three types of subdivisions. What are they and define.
- -Gross or microscopic (seen with the naked eye)
- - Microscopic (cells and tissues)
- - Developmental (changes during life span.)
What are the essential tools for the study of anatomy? (5)
- - Mastery of anatomical terminology
- - Observation
- - Manipulation
- - Palpation (feeling)
- - Auscultation (listening)
What are the essential tools for the study of physiology?
- - Ability to focus at many levels. (from systematic to cellular and molecular.)
- - Basic physical principles (e.g. electrical currents, force, pressure and movement.)
- - Basic chemical principles
What are the levels of structural organization? And define.
- - Chemical level : atoms combine to form molecules.
- - Cellular level : cells are made up of molecules.
- - Tissue level: tissues consists of similar types of cells.
- - Organ level : organs are made up of different types of tissues.
- - Organ system level : organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely.
- - Organismal level : the human organism is made up of many organ systems.
There are two ways the body maintains boundaries between internal and external environments?
- - Plasma membranes (trap nutrients in small volume, for reactions; different concentrations)
- - Skin (keeps water in and UV out)
How does the body move?
- - body parts move by the skeletal muscle.
- - Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)
- - ability to sense and respond to stimuli
- - withdrawal reflex
- - control of breathing rate.
- - breakdown of ingested foodstuffs.
- - absorption of simple molecules into blood.
- - All chemical reactions that occur in body cells.
- - Catabolism and anabolism.
- - removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion.
- - Urea, carbon dioxide, feces.
- - cellular division for growth or repair
- - production of offsprings.
- increase in size of a body part or of organism.
what forms the the Integumentary system?
what does it synthesize?
- -Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury.
- -synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
Function of skeletal system?
What are formed within bones?
What do bones store?
- -Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement.
- -Blood cells are formed within bones.
- -Bones store minerals.
What does the muscular system do?
What does it maintain?
What does it produce?
- - allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion and facial expression.
- - maintains posture.
- - produces heat.
What is the nervous system?
the fast-acting control system of the body. It responds to internal and external changes by activation appropriate muscles and glands.
What is the endocrine system?
- contains glands that secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction and nutrients
What is the cardiovascular system?
- includes blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes etc.
- The heart pumps blood.
What's the lymphatic system/immunity?
- picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood. Disposes debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
What does the respiratory system do?
keeps blood constantly supplies with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
Gaseous exchange occurs through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
What is the digestive system?
breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
What's the urinary system?
It eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of blood.
We need 5 things to survive. What are they?
- - Nutrients : chemicals for energy and cell building.
- - Oxygen : essential for energy release (ATP production)
- - Water : environment of chemical reactions. Fluid base for secretions and exertions.
- - Normal body temperature (37*C) This affects rate of chemical reactions.
- - Appropriate atmospheric pressure : adequate breathing and gas exchange in lungs.
What is homeostasis?
- - Maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in environment.
- - A dynamic state of equilibrium (not unchanging, rather fluctuations around a set point)
- - Maintained by contributions of all organ systems.
What are the three components of a control mechanism? Go into detail.
- - Receptor: monitors environment (internal or external and responds to stimuli (something that causes change in controlled variables.)
- - Control center: determines set point at which variable is maintained.
- - Effector: receives output form control center, provides means to respond.
Things leading up to the control center *picture left side of see-saw*
- 1. stimulus : produces a change.
- 2. receptor: detects change
- 3. Input : information sent along the afferent pathway to the control center.
things leading to the response *picture right side of see-saw*
- 4. output : information sent along the efferent pathway
- 5. response : effector feedback to reduce the effect of stimulus.
What's interesting about the negative feedback?
What type of response does it put forth?
Give an example.
- - most feedback mechanism in the body.
- - response recedes of shuts off original stimulus.
- - Examples : regulation of temperature of the body. Regulation of glucose by insulin.
What's a positive feedback? examples?
- - response enhances of exaggerates original
- - ex: enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin. Platelet plug formation and blood clotting.
Anatomical position and anatomical planes *
Look at coloring book.
What are the three basic parts of a cell?
- - Plasma membrane: flexible outer boundary
- - Cytoplasm : intracellula fluid containing organelles.
- - Nucleus : control center.
What is the plasma membrane made out of? Purpose?
- Lipid bilayer and proteins in constantly changing fluid mosaic.
- - Separates intracellular fluid (ICF) from extracellular fluid (ECF)
- - Obtains from (IF) exactly what it needs and when it's needed
- - keeps out what it doesn't need.
What is the extracellular fluid called?
What does the interstitial fluid contain?
thousands of substances like amino acids, vitamins, hormones, salts, waste products, sugars and fatty acids.
What do membrane proteins do?
How much mass does it take up?
What are the two types?
- - allows communication with environment.
- - 1/2 mass of plasma membrane
- - there are two types : integral proteins and peripheral proteins.
What are integral proteins?
- - firmly inserted into membrane
- - have hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
- - functions as transport proteins (channels and carrier)
What are peripheral proteins?
- - loosely attached to integral proteins.
- - functions as enzymes; motor proteins for shape change during cell division and muscle contraction; cell to cell connections.
there are two processes which substances can cross the membrane:
- - Passive process : requires no ATP. substance moves down its concentration gradient.
- - Active process : requires ATP. Occurs only in living cell membranes.
There are two types of passive transport which also ramificates. State these.
- - Diffusion which also includes simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion (which then includes carrier mediation facilitated diffusion or channel mediated facilitated diffusion) and osmosis.
- - Filtration which is usually across capillary walls.
Define Passive Process of diffusion
- - molecules move down or with their concentration gradient.
- - speed is influenced by molecule size and temperature.
How can molecules passively diffuse through membrane?
- if it's lipid soluble - small enough to pass through membrane - assisted by carrier molecules.
Define passive process of simple diffusion
- - nonpolar lipid soluble sunstances diffuse directly through phospholipid bilayer.
- ex: oxygen, carbon dioxide, fat soluble vitamins.
Define passive process of facilitated diffusion
- certain lipophobic molecules are transported passively by binding to protein carriers and moving through water-filled channels.
What do you need for a carrier mediated facilitated diffusion? And what do they do?
- - Obviously, Carriers a.k.a Transmembrane integral proteins.
- - they transport specific polar molecules which are too large to pass through (sugars and amino acids)
What about Channel mediated facilitated diffusion?
- channels formed by transmembrane proteins.
- - they selectively transport ions or water in two ways:
- 1. Leakage channels :always open
- 2. gated channels: controlled by chemical or electrical signals.
Tell me about Passive Process: Osmosis
What does it do?
When does it happen?
- - movement of solvent across selectively permeable membrane.
- - water diffuses through plasma membranes through the lipid bilayer and through specific water channels called aquaporins.
- - occurs when water concentration is different on the two sides of a membrane
- - both solutes and water cross membrane until equalized.
What is osmolarity?
Measure of total concentration of solute particles.
How is water and osmolarity related?
water moves by osmosis until hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure equalize
Now that we're done covering Passive process, let's talk about the active process. What are the two types of active process and what do they require and why?
- - active transport
- - vesicular transport
- requires north ATP to move solutes across living plasma membranes because solutes are too large, solutes are not lipid soluble and solutes not able to move down concentration gradient.
There are two types of active TRANSPORT. (not process, so it's different.) what are they and define.
- - Primary active transport : requires energy directly ATP hydrolysis.
- - Secondary active transport: requires energy indirectly from ionic gradient created by primary active transport.
What is required for active transport and what is its purpose?
____ from ____ of _____ causes what? give examples
- - requires carrier proteins (solute pumps) which bind specifically and reversibly with substance.
- - moves solutes against concentration gradient.
- - "Energy" "hydrolysis" "ATP" causes shape change in transport protein that "pumps" solutes (ions) across the membrane.
- ex: calcium, hydrogen, Na+ -K+ pumps.
What is the most studied active transport pump?
That's the carrier called?
Where is it located?
What is it involved in?
- - Sodium potassium pump is the Most well-studied
- - carrier (pump) called Na+ -K+ ATPase
- - Located in all plasma membranes.
- - primary and secondary active transport of nutrients and ions.
Sodium Potassium pump (a.k.a ____) does what?
- "Na+ K+ pumps"
- -allows slow leakage down concentration gradients.
- - works as anti porter which means it pumps against Na+ and K+ gradients to maintain high intracellular K+ concentration and high extracellular Na+ concentration
What's vesicular transport?
What does it need?
What are its functions?
- Transport of large particles, macromolecules and fluids across membrane in membranous sacs called vesicles.
- - It needs ATP
- - Functions : Exocytosis (transport out of cell) and Endocytosis (transport into cell)
Give examples of Endocytosis
- phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis.
What do phagocytosis do?
What do they form?
What uses them?
How do they move?
- they engulf solids and bring them into cell's interior. Forms a vesicle called phagosome.
- Macrophages and some white blood cells use them.
- They move by amoeboid motion which means cytoplasm flows into temporary extension and allows creeping.
How does it work?
Where does this type take place?
- It's the fluid phase endocytosis.
- -Plasma membrane infolds, bringing extracellular fluid and dissolved solutes inside the cell.
- - Nutrient absorption in the small intestine.
How is the exocytosis activated?
Where are the substances enclosed in?
What are its functions?
- - by cell-surface signal or change in membrane voltage.
- - Secretory vesicles.
- - Functions to secrete hormones, release neurotransmitters, secrete mucus and eject waste.
What is the study of tissues?
What are the four types of primary tissues and a summary of all of its main functions?
- - Epithelial tissue (covers)
- - Connective tissues (support)
- - Muscle tissues (produce movement)
- - Nerve tissues (control)
Now go into detail: Nervous tissue (btw, it has two important components)
- Internal communication. Main component of nervous system (regulates and controls body functions). Located in the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
- - Neurons : specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses.
- - Neuroglia : supporting cells that support, insulate and protect neurons.
Now go into detail: Muscle tissue (btw, there are three types) and know which ones are voluntary/ involuntary.
- Contracts to cause movement. Highly vascularized. 3 types
- - Skeletal : muscles attached to bones (Voluntary)
- - Cardiac : muscled attached to heart (Involuntary)
- - Smooth : Muscled of walls of hollow organs (Involuntary)
Now go into detail: Epithelial tissue. (btw, There are two types)
- Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters. There are two main types (by location)
- -Covering and lining epithelia:
- Located in the lining of digestive tract organs and other hollow organs.
- Skin surface (a.k.a epidermis)
- -Glandular epithelia:
- Secretory tissue in glands.
Now go into detail: Connective tissue. (btw, there are four main classes)
- Most abundant.
- Supports, protects and binds other tissues together.
- Located on the bones, tendons, fat and other soft padding tissues.
- Four main classes: Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone and blood.
What is the skeletal part of a cartilage?
What helps it become resilient?
What does it not contain?
- - water lends resiliency
- - contains no blood vessels or nerves.
Where is a perichondrium found in and what does it surround?
- found in cartilage.
- Surrounds dense connective tissue girdle which contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery and resists outward expansion.
What are chondrocytes? What do they produce and facilitate?
the only cells found in cartilage. Produces and maintains the cartilaginous matrix. Facilitates the exchange of fluids across the matrix.
There are three types of skeletal cartilage; what are they?
- - Hyaline cartilage
- - Elastic cartilage
- - Fibrocartilage
Now go into more detail about the Hyaline cartilage. Found where?
- - provides support, flexibility, and resilience.
- - only has collagen fibers which is the most abundant type.
- - Found articular, costal, respiratory and nasal cartilage.
Now go into more detail about the Elastic cartilage. Found where?
- - Similar to hyaline cartilage, but contains elastic fibers.
- - Found in the External ear and epiglottis.
Now go into more detail about the Fibrocartilage. Found where?
- - thick collagen fibers which has great tensile strength.
- - Found in the menisci of knee; vertebral discs.
There are two ways a cartilage can grow: what are they and define.
- - Appositional growth : cells secrete matrix against external face of existing cartilage.
- - Interstitial growth : chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within.
What's the difference between the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton?
- - Axial : long axis of the body which involves the skull, vertebral column and rib cage.
- - Appendicular : bones of upper and lower limbs and the girdles attaching limbs to axial skeleton.
What are the seven functions of bones and go into detail.
- - Support : for body and soft organs
- - Protection : for brain, spinal cord and vital organs.
- - Movement : levers for muscle action.
- - Mineral and growth factor storage.
- - Blood cell formation called (hematopoiesis) in red marrow cavities of certain bones.
- - Triglyceride (fat) storage in bone cavities for the source of energy.
- - Hormone production (Osteocalcin regulates bone formation; protects against obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus.
are Bones organs? What types of tissues do they contain? What three levels of structure can you use when describing a bone?
- - Yes!
- - bone (osseous) tissue, nervous tissue, cartilage, fibrous connective tissue, muscle and epithelial cells contained in its blood vessels.
- - Gross anatomy (macroscopic), microscopic and chemical.
There are two types of bone textures; what are they?
- - compact : dense outer layer, smooth and solid.
- - Spongy : (cancellous or trabecular) honeycomb of flat pieces called trabeculae.
What is the diaphysis part of a typical long bone?
- - tubular shaft forms long axis; compact bone surrounding medullary cavity
What is the epiphyses part of the bone?
- - Bone ends.
- - external compact bone and internal spongy bone.
- - articular cartilage covers articular surfaces.
- - there's the epiphyseal line which is the remnant of childhood bone growth at epiphyseal plate.
What is the periosteum membrane?
What does it cover?
Which layer abuts the bone and contains what type of cells?
How do nerve fibers and blood vessels enter the bone?
- -white, double-layered membrane
- - covers external surfaces except join surfaces.
- - Outer fibrous layer of sense irregular connective tissue
- - osteogenic layer which abuts bone and contains primitive stem cells - osteogenic cells.
- - thought nutrient foramina (holes)
What's the endosteum membrane?
What does it cover?
What does it line?
What types of cells does it contain and what can it do?
- - delicate connective tissue covering internal bone surface.
- - covers trabecular of spongy bone
- - lines canals that pass through compact bone
- - contains osteogenic cells that can differentiate into other bone cells.
Where is the red marrow of adults vs infants?
- Adults : trabecular cavities of the heads of the femur and humerus and diploe of flat bone.
- (yellow marrow can turn red if necessary.)
infants: Medullary cavities and all spaces in spongy bone.
what are Bone cells 1 and 2 out of 5
- -Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells where the stem cells in periosteum and endosteum that give rise to osteoblasts.
- - Osteoblasts : bone-forming cells which are actively mitotic
What are bone cells 3 and 4 and 5 out of 5
- - Osteocytes : mature bone cells in lacunae and monitors and maintains the bone matrix.
- - Osteoclasts help cells that break down (reabsorb) bone matrix.
- - Bone lining cells which just help t maintain the matrix.
What's the osteon or Haversian system?
- - structureal unit of compact bone.
- - Elongated cylinder parallel to long axis of bone.
- - Hollow tubes of bone matrix calle lamellae where the collagen fibers run in different directions.
Where does the central (Haversian) canal run through and what does it contain?
- - core of osteon.
- - contains blood vessels and nerve fibers.
Where is the Perforating (Volkmann's canals) and what does it connect to?
- - at right angles to central canal.
- - connects blood vessels and nerves of periosteum, medullary cavity and central canal.
What's a lacunae?
- small cavities that contain the osteocytes.
What's a Canaliculi?
- hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and central canal.
How does the Spongy Bone differentiate to the Compact bone?
- - appears poorly organized.
- - Trabeculae aligns along lines of stress to help resist it. There's no osteons. It contains irregularly arranged lamellae and osteocytes interconnected by canaliculi.
- - Capillaries in endosteum supply nutrients.
How strong is Bone?
How long can it last and why is it important?
- - Half as strong as steel. Strong as steel when resisting tension.
- - lasts long after death due to mineral composition.
- learned about ancestry through this and lack of bone growth can indicate illness.
What is ossification (osteogenesis)
- - process of bone tissue formation.
- - Forms bony skeleton which begins in 2nd month of development.
- - postnatal bone growth until early adulthood.
- - Bone remodeling and repair that last a lifetime.
Go into detail about the Interstitial (longitudinal) growth.
- Bone is increased length wise.
- Relates to the epiphyseal plate closure where
- - bone lengthening ceases.
- - bone of epiphysis and diaphysis fuse
- - females : 18 years
- - males : 21 years.
Go into detail about appositional growth
- - increase in bone thickness (width)
- - occurs throughout life.
Hormonal regulation of Bone Growth: growth hormone.
Most important in simulating epiphyseal plate activity in infancy and childhood.
Hormonal regulation of Bone Growth: Thyroid hormone.
- - modulates activity of growth hormone.
- - ensures proper proportions.
Hormonal regulation of Bone Growth: Testosterone (males) estrogens (females) at puberty.
- - promotes adolescent growth spurts
- - end growth by inducing epiphyseal plate closure.
Bone Homeostasis: Response to Mechanical Stress
How do they reflect stress?
How do they become stressed?
- - Bones reflect stresses they encounter by having the long bones thickest midway along diaphysis where bending stresses are greatest.
- - They become stressed when weight bears on them or muscles pull on them. Bending compresses on one side and stretches on the other side.
What's the result of Mechanical Stressors: Wolff's law? And explain.
- - Bone grow or remodel in response to demands places on it.
- - Handedness (right or left handed) results in thicker and stronger bone of that upper limb (like playing tennis.)
There are three "either/or" fracture classifications for bones. What are they and define.
- - Position of bone ends after fracture : Nondisplaced (ends retain normal position) or Displaced ( ends out of normal alignment.)
- - Completeness of break : Complete (broken all the way through) or Incomplete (not broken all the way through)
- - Whether skin is penetrated : Open compound (skin is penetrated) or Closed simple (skin is not penetrated)
Also, described by location, external appearance, nature of the break.
Name this Common type of Fracture
- Bone fragments into three or more pieces. Particularly common in the aged, whose bones are more brittle.
Name this Common type of Fracture
- Bone is crushed and it's common in porous bones (osteoprotic bones) subjected to extreme traumas, as in a fall.
Name this Common type of Fracture
- Spiral :
- Ragged break which occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone.
- Common sports fracture.
Name this Common type of Fracture
- Epiphyseal :
- Epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate.
- Tends to occur where cartilage cells are dying and calcification of the matrix is occurring.
Name this Common type of Fracture
- Broken bone portion is pressed inward.
- Typical skull fracture.
Name this Common type of Fracture
- Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks, only one side of the shaft breaks; the other side bends.
- Common children, whose bones are relatively more organic matrix and are more flexible than those of adults.
How do you treat/repair a fracture?
- Treatment : Reduction and Immobilization.
- - Reduction : realign broken bone ends.
- • Closed reduction : physician manipulates to correct position.
- • Open reduction : surgical pins or wires are secured.
- - Immobilization : by cast or traction for healing.
- • Depends on break severity, bone broken and age of patient.
Step 1 to the stages in the healing of a bone fracture.
- 1. Hematoma forms
- - Torn blood vessels hemorrhage.
- - Clot (hemotoma) forms.
- - Site swollen, painful and inflamed.
Step 2 to the stages in the healing of a bone fracture.
- 2. Fibrocartilaginous callus forms.
- - Phagocytic cells clear debris.
- - Fibroblasts secrete collagen fibers to span break and connect broken ends.
- - Fibroclasrs, cartilage and osteogenic cells begins the reconstruction of bone.
Step 3 to the stages in the healing of a bone fracture.
- 3. Bony callus forms
- - within one week, new trabeculae appear in fibrocartilaginous callus.
- - callus converted to bony (hard) callus of spongy bone.
- - 2 months later firm union forms.
Step 4 to the stages in the healing of a bone fracture.
- 4. Bone remodeling occurs.
- - begins during body callus formation
- - continues for several months
- - compact bone laid down to reconstruct shaft walls.
- - Final structure resembles original because responds to same mechanical stressors.