Adult Health I: exam 1 terms

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Adult Health I: exam 1 terms
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  1. immunocompetence
    the ability of the body to produce a normal immune response following exposure to an antigen.
  2. self-tolerance
    immunological tolerance to self-antigens.
  3. human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)
    A type of molecule found on the surface of most cells in the body. Human leukocyte antigens play an important part in the body's immune response to foreign substances. They make up a person’s tissue type, which varies from person to person. Human leukocyte antigen tests are done before a donor stem cell or organ transplant, to find out if tissues match between the donor and the person receiving the transplant. Also called HLA and human lymphocyte antigen.
  4. antigens
    Any substance that causes the body to make a specific immune response.
  5. stem cells
    A cell from which other types of cells develop. For example, blood cells develop from blood-forming stem cells.
  6. pluripotent
    Able to mature or develop in any of several ways.
  7. leukocytes or WBCs
    A type of blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph tissue. Leukocytes are part of the body’s immune system. They help the body fight infection and other diseases. Types of leukocytes are granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells). Checking the number of leukocytes in the blood is usually part of a complete blood cell (CBC) test. It may be used to look for conditions such as infection, inflammation, allergies, and leukemia. Also called WBC and white blood cell.
  8. absolute neutrophil count (ANC)
    A measure of the number of neutrophils in the blood. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. They help the body fight infection. An absolute neutrophil count may be used to check for infection, inflammation, leukemia, and other conditions. Cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy, may reduce the absolute neutrophil count. Also called ANC.
  9. phagocytosis
    The process by which a phagocyte (a type of white blood cell) surrounds and destroys foreign substances (such as bacteria) and removes dead cells.
  10. chemotaxins
    a substance, e.g. a complement component, that induces chemotaxis (movement toward or away from a chemical stimulus. Chemotaxis is a cellular function, particularly of neutrophils and monocytes, whose phagocytic activity is influenced by chemical factors released by invading microorganisms.).
  11. five cardinal manifestations of inflammation
    redness, pain, heat, swelling, loss of function
  12. hyperemia
    the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body. It can have medical implications, but is also a regulatory response, allowing change in blood supply to different tissues through vasodilation. Clinically, hyperaemia in tissues manifest as erythema, because of the engorgement of vessels with oxygenated blood.
  13. edema
    Swelling caused by excess fluid in body tissues.
  14. neutrophilia
    high number of neutrophil granulocytes in blood.
  15. immunity
    The condition of being protected against an infectious disease. Immunity can be caused by a vaccine, previous infection with the same agent, or by transfer of immune substances from another person or animal.
  16. antibody-mediated immunity (AMI)
    Humoral immunity (also called the antibody-mediated system) is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules (as opposed to cell-mediated immunity) found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins and certain antimicrobial peptides. Humoral immunity is so named because it involves substances found in the humours, or body fluids.The study of the molecular and cellular components that comprise the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. The immune system is divided into a more primitive innate immune system, and acquired or adaptive immune system of vertebrates, each of which contains humoral and cellular components.Humoral immunity refers to antibody production and the accessory processes that accompany it, including: Th2 activation and cytokine production, germinal center formation andisotype switching, affinity maturation and memory cell generation. It also refers to the effector functions of antibody, which include pathogen and toxin neutralization, classicalcomplement activation, and opsonin promotion of phagocytosis and pathogen elimination.
  17. plasma cell
    A type of immune cell that makes large amounts of a specific antibody. Plasma cells develop from B cells that have been activated. A plasma cell is a type of white blood cell. Also called plasmacyte.
  18. memory cell
    During an immune response, B and T cells create memory cells. These are clones of the specific B and T cells that remain in the body, holding information about each threat the body has been exposed to! This gives our immune system memory. The immune system is thus able to mount a quicker and more powerful response if it encounters the same threat again.
  19. agglutination
    Agglutination is the clumping of particles. The word agglutination comes from the Latin agglutinare, meaning "to glue."

    • This occurs in biology in three main examples:
    • The clumping of cells such as bacteria or red blood cells in the presence of an antibody. The antibody or other molecule binds multiple particles and joins them, creating a large complex. An example occurs when people are given blood transfusions of the wrong blood group.
    • The coalescing of small particles that are suspended in a solution; these larger masses are then (usually) precipitated.
    • An allergic reaction type occurrence where cells become more compacted together to prevent foreign materials entering them. This is usually the result of an antigen in the vicinity of the cells.
  20. lysis
    refers to the breakdown of a cell caused by damage to its plasma (outer) membrane. It can be caused by chemical or physical means (for example, strong detergents or high-energy sound waves) or by infection with a strain virus that can lyse cells.
  21. complement activation & fixation
  22. precipitation
  23. inactivation (neutralization)
  24. immunoglobulin
    A protein that is made by B cells and plasma cells (types of white blood cells) and helps the body fight infection. Some immunoglobulins may be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with certain conditions or certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Measuring the amount of specific immunoglobulins in the blood and urine may help diagnose cancer or find out how well treatment is working or if cancer has come back. Some immunoglobulins may be used as tumor markers. Also called Ig.
  25. gamma globulins
    a class of globulins, identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis. The most significant gamma globulins are immunoglobulins ("Igs"), a subclass of which are antibodies, although some Igs are not gamma globulins, and some gamma globulins are not Igs.
  26. adaptive immunity
    The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate or preventpathogen growth. One of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the innate immune system), acquired immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components.In acquired immunity, pathogen-specific receptors are "acquired" during the lifetime of the organism (whereas in innate immunity pathogen-specific receptors are already encoded in the germline)... The acquired response is said to be "adaptive" because it prepares the body's immune system for future challenges (though it can actually also be maladaptive when it results in autoimmunity).[n 1]The system is highly adaptable because of somatic hypermutation (a process of accelerated somatic mutations), and V(D)J recombination(an irreversible genetic recombination of antigen receptor gene segments). This mechanism allows a small number of genes to generate a vast number of different antigen receptors, which are then uniquely expressed on each individual lymphocyte. Because the gene rearrangement leads to an irreversible change in the DNA of each cell, all of the progeny (offspring) of that cell will then inherit genes encoding the same receptor specificity, including the Memory B cells and Memory T cells that are the keys to long-lived specific immunity.A theoretical framework explaining the workings of the acquired immune system is provided by immune network theory. This theory, which builds on established concepts of clonal selection, is being applied in the search for an HIV vaccine.
  27. attenuation
    The process of weakening a pathogen. Attenuation may be achieved in a variety of way: by exposing the pathogen to heat or chemicals, for example, or by passing the pathogens through a growth medium many times. The goal of attenuation in virology is to produce an antigen that is capable of stimulating an immune response, and thus creating immunity, but not causing disease.
  28. hypersensitivity
    An exaggerated response by the immune system to a drug or other substance.
  29. cytokines
    Cytokines (Greek cyto-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are a diverse group of soluble proteins, peptides, or glycoproteins which act as hormonal regulators or signaling molecules at nano- to- picomolar concentrations and help in cell signaling. The term "cytokine" encompasses a large and diverse family of regulators produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin.[1]The term "cytokine" has been used to refer to the immunomodulating agents, such as interleukins and interferons. They are regulators of host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, and trauma.[2] Some of them are proinflammatory; these are necessary to initiate an inflammatory response necessary to recruit granulocytes, and later on, lymphocytes, to fight disease. Excessive inflammation, however, is sometimes the pathogenicity of certain diseases. Other cytokines are anti-inflammatory and serve to reduce inflammation and promote healing once the injury/infection/foreign body has been destroyed.[2]Biochemists disagree as to which molecules should be termed cytokines and which hormones. As we learn more about each, anatomic and structural distinctions between the two are fading. Classic protein hormones circulate in nanomolar (10-9M) concentrations that usually vary by less than one order of magnitude. In contrast, some cytokines (such as IL-6) circulate in picomolar (10-12M) concentrations that can increase up to 1,000-fold during trauma or infection. The widespread distribution of cellular sources for cytokines may be a feature that differentiates them from hormones. Virtually all nucleated cells, but especially endo/epithelial cells and resident macrophages (many near the interface with the external environment) are potent producers of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α.[3] In contrast, classic hormones, such as insulin, are secreted from discrete glands (e.g., the pancreas).[4] As of 2008, the current terminology refers to cytokines as immunomodulating agents. However, more research is needed in this area of defining cytokines and hormones.Part of the difficulty with distinguishing cytokines from hormones is that some of the immunomodulating effects of cytokines are systemic rather than local. For instance, to use hormone terminology, the action of cytokines may be autocrine or paracrine in chemotaxis or chemokinesis and endocrine as a pyrogen. Further, as molecules, cytokines are not limited to their immunomodulatory role. For instance, cytokines are also involved in several developmental processes during embryogenesis
  30. monokines
    A monokine is a type of cytokine[1] produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages.Examples include interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.Other monokines include alpha and beta interferon, and colony stimulating factors.[2]
  31. lymphokines
    Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signalling between its cells. Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can detect a very small concentration of lymphokine and then move up the concentration gradient towards where the immune response is required. Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies.Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include:[2]Interleukin 2Interleukin 3Interleukin 4Interleukin 5Interleukin 6Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factorInterferon-gamma
  32. neutrophil
    • leukocyte
    • inflammation
    • nonspecific ingestion & phagocytosis of microorganisms & foreign protein
  33. macrophage
    • leukocyte
    • inflammation
    • nonspecific recognition of foreign proteins and microorganisms; ingestion & phagocytosis
  34. monocyte
    • leukocyte
    • inflammation
    • destruction of bacteria & cellular debris; matures into macrophage
  35. eosinophil
    • leukocyte
    • inflammation
    • weak phagocytic action; releases vasoactive amines during allergic reactions
  36. basophil
    • leukocyte
    • inflammation
    • releases histamine & heparin in areas of tissue damage
  37. B-lymphocyte
    • leukocyte
    • antibody-mediated immunity
    • becomes sensitized to foreign cells & proteins
  38. plasma cell
    • leukocyte
    • antibody-mediated immunity
    • secretes immunoglobulins in response to the presence of a specific antigen
  39. memory cell
    • leukocyte
    • antibody-mediated immunity
    • remains sensitized to a specific antigen & can secrete increased amounts of immunoglobulins specific to the antigen on re-exposure
  40. helper/induced T-cell
    • leukocyte
    • cell-mediated immunity
    • enhances immune activity through secretion of various factors, cytokines, & lymphokines
  41. cytotoxic/cytolytic T-cell
    • leukocyte
    • cell-mediated immunity
    • selectively attacks & destroys non-self cells, including virally infected cells, grafts, & transplanted organs
  42. Natural killer cell
    • leukocyte
    • cell-mediated immunity
    • non selectively attacks non-self cells, especially body cells that have undergone mutation & become malignant; also attacks grafts & transplanted organs
  43. Interleukin-1 (IL-1)
    • pro-inflammatory cytokine
    • induces fever
    • stimulates production of prostaglandins
    • increases growth of CD4+ T-cells
  44. Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
    • pro-inflammatory cytokine
    • increases growth & differentiation of T-lymphocytes
    • enhances natural killer cell activity against cancer cells
  45. Interleukin-6 (IL-6)
    • pro-inflammatory cytokine
    • stimulates liver to produce fibrinogen & protein C
    • increases rate of bone marrow production of stem cells
    • increases numbers of sensitized B-lymphocytes
  46. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
    • pro-inflammatory cytokine
    • induces fever
    • major cytokine involved in rheumatoid arthritis damage
    • major cytokine involved in the acute inflammatory response to infectious bacteria & starts many of the systemic complications of severe infection or sepsis
    • increases leukocyte adhesion
    • participates in graft rejection
    • induces cachexia & muscle breakdown
    • induces cell death
    • stimulates delayed hypersensitivity reactions & allergy
  47. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)
    • growth factor cytokine
    • increases numbers & maturity of neutrophils
  48. granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
    • growth factor cytokine
    • increases growth & maturation of myeloid stem cells
  49. erythropoietin
    • growth factor cytokine
    • increases growth & differentiation of erythrocytes
  50. thrombopoietin
    • growth factor cytokine
    • increases growth & differentiation of platelets
  51. retroviruses
    the family of viruses that includes the human immune deficiency viruses
  52. opportunistic infections
    infection caused by organisms that are present as part of the normal environment & would be kept in check by normal immune function
  53. long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs)
    a person who has been infected with the human immune deficiency virus for at least 10 years & has remained asymptomatic with CD4+ cell counts within a normal range. About 1% of those infected are long-term nonprogressors.
  54. viremia
    the presence of viruses in the blood
  55. anergy
    the inability to mount an immune response to an antigen.
  56. viral load testing
    test that measures the presence of human immune deficiency virus genetic material (ribonucleic acid) or other viral proteins in the patient's blood.
  57. hypersensitivity or allergy
    an overreaction to a foreign substance.
  58. antigen
    a foreign protein or allergen that is capable of causing an immune response; protein on the surface of a cell.
  59. anaphylaxis
    the widespread reaction that occurs in response to contact with a substance to which the person has a severe allergy (antigen); characterized by blood vessel & bronchiolar smooth muscle involvement causing widespread blood vessel dilation, decreased cardiac output, & bronchoconstriction; results in cell damage & the release of large amounts of histamine, severe hypovolemia, vascular collapse, decreased cardiac contraction, & dysrhythmias & causes extreme whole-bdoy hypoxia.
  60. anaphylactoid
    pseudoanaphylaxis
  61. allergen
    a foreign protein that is capable of causing a hypersensitivity response, or allergy, that ranges from uncomfortable (itchy, watery eyes or sneezing) to life threatening (allergic asthma, anaphylaxis, bronchoconstriction, or circulatory collapse); causes a release of natural chemicals, such as histamine, in the body.
  62. rhinorrhea
    watery drainage from the nose; a "runny" nose.
  63. angioedema
    diffuse swelling resulting from a vascular reaction in the deep tissues; can occur in a patient having an anaphylactic reaction.
  64. autoantibodies
    antibodies directed against self tissues of cells.
  65. epistaxis
    nosebleed
  66. pathogen
    any microorganism capable of producing disease.
  67. communicable
    the ability of an infection, such as influenza, to be transmitted from person to person.
  68. pathogenicity
    the ability to cause disease.
  69. virulence
    a term used to describe the frequency with which a pathogen causes disease (degree of communicability) & its ability to invade & damage a host. Virulence can also indicate the severity of the disease; often used as a synonym for pathogenicity.
  70. normal flora
    the microorganisms living in or on the human host without causing disease; the bacteria that are characteristic of each body location. Often compete w/ & prevent infection from unfamiliar microorganisms attempting to invade a body site.
  71. colonization
    the presence of microorganisms in the tissues of the host without causing symptomatic disease.
  72. surveillance
    term used to describe the tracking of infections by health care agencies.
  73. reservoirs
    in health care, a source of infectious agents. Animate reservoirs include people, animals & insects. Inanimate reservoirs include environmental sources & medical equipment. Community reservoirs include sewage, contaminated water, & improperly handled foods.
  74. carrier
    (1) a person who harbors an infectious agent without symptoms of active disease; (2) in genetics, a person who has one mutated allele for a recessive genetic disorder. A carrier does not usually have any manifestations of the disorder but can pass the mutated allele to his or her children.
  75. toxins
    protein molecule released by bacteria that affects host cell at a distant site. continued multiplication of a pathogen is sometimes accompanied by toxin production.
  76. exotoxins
    any toxic substance that is produced & released by certain bacteria into the surrounding environment. botulism, tetanus, diphtheria are attributed to exotoxins.
  77. endotoxins
    any toxic substance that is produced in the cell walls of certain bacteria & released only w/ cell lysis. Typhoid & meningococcal diseases are caused by endotoxins.
  78. susceptibility
    the risk of the host to infection; may be increased by the breakdown of host defenses against pathogens.
  79. immunity
    resistance to infection; usually associated w/ the presence of antibodies or cells that act on specific microorganisms.
  80. passive immunity
    resistance to infection that is of short duration (days or months) & either natural by transplacental transfer from the mother or artificial by injection of antibodies (immunoglobulin).
  81. active immunity
    resistance to infection that occurs when the body responds to an invading antigen by making specific antibodies against the antigen. immunity lasts for years & is natural by infection or artificial by stimulation (vaccine) of the body's immune defenses.
  82. bacteremia
    the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream.
  83. direct contact
    a mode of infection transmission in which microorganisms are transferred directly by physical contact from one person to another.
  84. indirect contact
    a mode of infection transmission in which microorganisms are transferred passively from a contaminated inanimate object to a susceptible person.
  85. droplets
    the small particles produced when a person coughs or sneezes; may be involved in indirect transmission of infection.
  86. lysozymes
    a component that is present in large quantities in many body secretions & dissolves the cell walls of some bacteria.
  87. phagocytosis
    the process of engulfing, ingesting, killing & disposing of an invading organism by neutrophils & macrophages; a key process of inflammation.
  88. antibody-mediated immune system
    the defense response that produces antibodies directed against certain pathogens. The antibodies directed against certain pathogens. The antibodies inactivate the pathogens & protect against future infection from that microorganism.
  89. cell-mediated immunity
    microbial resistance that is mediated by the action of specifically sensitized T-lymphocytes.
  90. health care-acquireded infection (HAI)
    infections that are associated with the provision of health care; for example, microorganisms can enter the body through the genitourinary tract in patients with indwelling urinary catheters.
  91. endogenous
    originating inside the body
  92. exogenous
    originating outside the body
  93. hand hygiene
    infection control protocol that refers to both hand washing & alcohol-based hand rubs.
  94. personal protective equipment (PPE)
    infection control protocol that refers to the use of gloves, isolation gowns, face protection, & respirators w/ N95 or higher filtration.
  95. latex allergy
    reactions to exposure to latex in gloves & other medical products; reactions include rashes, nasal or eye symptoms & asthma.
  96. sterilization
    a method of infection control in which all living organisms & bacterial spores are destroyed; used on items that invade human tissue where bacteria are not commonly found.
  97. disinfection
    a method of infection control in which the level of disease-causing organisms is reduced but the organisms are not killed; adequate when an item is entering a body area that has resident bacteria or normal flora, such as the respiratory tract.
  98. cohorting
    the practice of grouping patients who are colonized or infected with the same pathogen.
  99. standard precautions
    infection control guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention stating that all body excretions, secretions & moist membranes & tissues are potentially infectious; combines protective measures from Universal Precautions & Body Substance Isolation.
  100. airborne precautions
    infection control guidelines from the CDC; used for patients with infections spread by the airborne transmission route, such as tuberculosis. Negative airflow rooms are required to prevent the airborne spread of microbes.
  101. droplet precautions
    infection control guidelines from CDC; used for patients with infections spread by the droplet transmission route, such as influenza.
  102. contact precautions
    infection control guidelines from CDC; used for patients with infections spread by direct contact or contact with items in the patient's environment, such as pediculosis.
  103. biofilm
    a complex group of microorganisms that functions within a "slimy" gel coating on medical devices.
  104. noncompliance
    in health care, deliberate failure by a patient to take medication.
  105. nonadherence
    in health care, accidental failure by a patient to take medication.
  106. septic shock
    the type of shock that occurs when large amounts of toxins & endotoxins produced by bacteria are released into the blood, causing a whole-body inflammatory reaction.
  107. hyperthermia
    elevated body temperature; fever.
  108. lymphadenopathy
    persistently enlarged lymph nodes.
  109. sensitivity
    the likelihood that infecting bacterial organisms will be killed or stopped by a particular antibiotic drug. Sensitivity is determined by testing different antibiotics against the organisms. Organisms are "sensitive" if the antibiotic is effective in stopping their growth; organisms are "resistant" if the antibiotic is not effective.
  110. shift to the left
    an increased number of immature neutrophils found on a differential count in patients with infections; can be characterized by changes in percentages of different types of leukocytes.
  111. serologic testing
    laboratory testing that is performed to identify pathogens by detecting antibodies to the organism.
  112. superinfection
    reinfection or a second infection of the same type.

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