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The science of genetics attempts to explain
How and why similarities/differences occur between related individuals
Definition: study of heredity and variation.
Science: attempts to explain how and why similarities and differences between related individuals occur.
Hereditary info does what three things?
- Hereditary info directs cellular functions
- Determines organism's external appearance, and
- Serves as link between two generations
Four major areas of genetic research
- 1. Transmission
- 2. Cytogenics
- 3. Molecular
- 4. Population
Transmission Genetics - Three characteristics?
- 1. Oldest
- 2. Experiments designed so can analyze passing of traits through several generations
- 3. "Modes of inheritance" for characteristics are determined - through breeding experiments and/or pedigree chart analysis
How are different Modes of Inheritance determined?
"Modes of inheritance" for characteristics are determined - through breeding experiments and/or pedigree chart analysis
Cytogenics - three notes
- 1. Study chromosomes as relate to inheritance (cytology = studies *cell* biology)
- 2. Includes what should and whatever else does happen during mitosis/meiosis
- 3. Includes investigating problems related to deviations from expected chromosome numbers and deviations in chromosome structure (eg deletions, dup's and abnormalities) as seen in the karyotypes
How are chromosomal abnormalities determined?
By karyotypes (the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and how they look under microscope - per Wikipedia)
Molecular genetics - three notes
- 1. Concerned with how genetic info is storedin DNA and
- 2. How DNA, RNA, polypeptides and proteins are produced.
- 3. Includes the structure, expression and regulation of genetic info
Population genetics - two notes
- 1. Concerned with how and why certain genetic variations are maintained in populations while others diminish or disappear
- 2. Also deals with predicting gene frequencies in future generations
A population is a group of organisms of the same species that live in a certain locatlity
Thomas Hunt Morgan and Drosophila
He and grad students