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Name the normal values for fecal fat, serum sodium, and hemoglobin A1c.
- Fecal fat = 5 - 7 htsmd/24 hours
- Sodium = 135 - 148 mEq/L
- Hemoglobin A1c = 4.0 - 8.2% (3-4 month test to evaluate blood glucose)
Name the affected blood lab values in pernicious anemia
- Low RBC, Hgb, Hct
- High MCV
- Normal MCHC
Name the nutrient needs that increase during lactation.
Name the affected blood lab values in iron deficiency anemia.
- Low Hgb, Hct, MCV and MCHC
- RBC may be normal
- (Microcytic anemia)
Describe the feeding regimen for a breast-fed infant
Name the half-life of transferring and the normal storage capacity
- Half-life = 8-10 days
- Normally saturated 30 - 40% with iron
Name the onset time of regular, NPH, and ultralente insulin.
- Regular = 0.5 - 1 hour
- NPH = 2 - 4 hours
- Ultralente = 6 - 10 hours
A TPN solution contains: 500 ml 20% dextrose, 500% ml 4% protein, 250 ml 20% dextrose, 500 ml 4% protein, 250 ml 20% lipids. Determine the non-protein kcals, total kcals and non-protein kcals: nitrogen ration.
- 840 non-protein kcals
- 920 total kcals
- 263:1 ratio
What is the kcal:N ratio of 1500 kcals and 20% protein?
A patient is receiving 2 liters of D5W; how many kcals would this provide?
It is the milk that is produced just prior to and after childbirth, it is rich in antibodies.
Name the only circumstance when it is advised for pregnant women to lose weight.
- "if a pregnant women is overweight, the dietitian wants to council the patient on how to slow the rate of weight gain, but never to lose weight"
How much formula and water is needed for 3/4 strength tube feeding at 50 cc/hour for 24 hours?
- 900 cc/day of formula
- 300 cc water
Name the first step when developing an inservice, presentation, or workshop.
Assess the needs and interests of the audience.
Nutrition education programs should primarily be used as:
A pregnant vegan's diet may lack which nutrients?
Describe the objective of HMOs.
HMOs focus on preventative medical care, the main objective is to prevent patients from being admitted to the hospital.
Compare the fat, protein, and CHO content in 1 L of human breast milk to that of formula.
- Human milk contains 45 gms fat, 9-11 gms protein, and 70 gms CHO
- Formula contains 33-36 gms fat, 15 gms protein, and 79-96 gms of CHO
Describe the appropriate rate of weight gain during pregnancy.
- Weight gain is slow during the 1st trimester and increases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters.
- "recommended weight gain: 2-4 lbs in the 1st trimester; 1 pound/wk in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters.
List the most common reasons for weight gain amongst the US adult population.
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Modern day conveniences replacing energy expending activities
Name the most effective tool for assessing the nutritional status of the elderly population.
Height and weight
List three common nutritionally related disease states among the elderly.
- High blood pressure
Define morbidity and mortality.
- Morbidity is the incidence of illness
- Mortality is the incidence of death
What does the RD need first to release patient record to a physician
Written consent from the patient
Name the NHANES population surveyed
2 months to 74 years
List the two most common nutrients that are supplemented during pregnancy.
List three considerations when planning a nutrition program for the elderly.
- Food myths
- Lack of exercise
A 155-pound, 5'10" male is what percentage of his IBW?
93.3% of his IBW
What is a neutropenic diet?
A low bacteria diet, fresh fruits and vegetables are omitted.
Name the criteria for the Congregate Meals program.
- 60 years or older
- No income criteria
- Only one member of a couple must qualify
What foods are in alkaline ash diet?
Fruits and vegetables
Explain positive and negative nitrogen balance.
- Positive nitrogen balance = greater retention than excretion (times of building and healing)
- Negative nitrogen balance = greater excretion than retention (times of sickness)
Name the most important anthropometric indicator of failure to thrive.
Weight for age
A regulation is the interpretation of a law
Name the disease that alters copper metabolism
Name the report that provides information for the formulation of the "10 Leading Causes of Death in the US"
- The Surgeon General's report
- "Heart disease, stroke, and cancer are the top 3 causes of death in this country, and dietary factors play a role in each"
Describe the growth pattern seen in growth retardation.
- As age increases, increments of linear growth are slowed.
- "That is, when plotted on growth charts, height for age decreases slowly overtime"
The Child and Adult Care Food Program serves what population?
Children and adults in day care facilities.
Name the purpose of the Dietary Guidelines.
- To prevent chronic disease
- They also aid in planning for community nutrition programs
An HIV patient has a consistent temperature of 104 degrees F. What percentage increase would be in the kcals needed to maintain body weight?
A tube feeder with 1.6 kcals/cc is to run from 10pm - 11am. What rate is needed to deliver 1800 kcals/24 hours?
List general goals of a community based nutrition program.
- Meet the needs of the large demographic group within a population.
- Address the communities' largest problems.
- Take into consideration the goals of the local government and public officials
- "A goal would NOT include meeting ALL the needs of the community"
When would you contact your congressional representative to gain support in a piece of legislation?
After the bill has been introduced to the floor.
Reading the local newspaper will inform you on what stage of the passage of a bill?
The proposal stage.
Define Appropriation Bill
A bill that request government funding for a community based program.
Name the population that has an increased incidence of obesity.
African-American females age 44-65
What daily caloric intake will result in weight loss of 2 lbs/month if currently consuming 2000 kcals/day?
Name the food restrictions in Judaism.
- No pork products
- Fish must have fins/scales such as cod or halibut. (No shellfish, squid, etc)
- No meat/poultry or dairy combined in the same meal (i.e. Pepperoni Pizza)
- No foods containing blood.
- "Note that gelatin contains pork products"
Name the first step involved when making program changes due to funding cuts.
Compare surveys with surveillance programs
- Surveys are conducted once in a given timeframe.
- A surveillance program is ongoing or continuous.
List some frequently eaten foods by the Native American population
- A variety of meats, nuts, berries, corn, jerky, maple syrup, tomatoes and squash.
- "There is a high prevalence of lactose intolerance in this population."
What foods are in the acid ash diet?
Cereals and meats.
Name normal hemoglobin and hematocrit values.
- Hematocrit: Men = >44%; Women = >38%
- Hemoglobin: Men = 14.0 or greater; Women = 12.0 or greater
Name the preparation process that contributes to the most vitamin loss.
Chopping and cutting of foods into small pieces
Name some symptoms of vitamin A deficiency.
- Keratinization of the skin and mucous membranes.
- Night blindness
Name the active form of vitamin D.
Describe the conversion of tryptophan to niacin.
- 60 mg tryptophan yields 1 mg niacin.
- "If protein or tryptophan intake increases, then there is decreased need for intake of niacin."
Describe how antibiotics can cause vitamin K deficiency.
High doses of antibiotics can destroy the intestinal flora which synthesizes intrinsic factor causing a decrease synthesis of vitamin K.
Name the best sources for vitamin K.
Leafy green vegetables; i.e. broccoli, cabbage, turnip greens, lettuce
Name some anticoagulants and their role with vitamin K.
- Coumadin, Warfarin, Heparin: Act as vitamin K antagonists.
- "While on these medications, it is important to keep a consistent intake of vitamin K."
Name the required nutrients on a food label aside from the energy producing nutrients.
- Sodium, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron.
- "Vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron are the most common deficient nutrients in the US diet."
Name the B-complex vitamins.
- B1 = Thiamin
- B2 = Riboflavin
- B3 = Niacin
- B6 = Pyrodoxine
- B12 = Cobalamin
Describe glutathione peroxidase.
- Active form of selenium that acts with antioxidants
- "There is a risk of selenium deficiency in TPN patients without supplementation"
Name the structure that closely resembles glucose.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Cell that forms bone structure
Cell that breaks down bone structure.
How many kcals in 2 pieces of bread and 2 ounces of turkey breast
Describe beta carotene
A precursor to vitamin A, converted in the small intestine.
Describe Wilson's Disease
- Excessive accumulation of copper in the liver, brain, kidney, and cornea.
- An inherited disorder of copper metabolism.
What role does estrogen play in bone loss.
Estrogen decreases resorption of calcium from the bone.
Describe the Glucostatic theory.
Signals are sent to they hypothalamus indicating to the brain that satiety has been reached.
Describe phytic acid.
Found in husks of cereal grain, binds with calcium and inhibits absorption.
Name some influences on iron absorption.
- Citrus juices increase iron absorption.
- Tea, coffee, and milk decrease absorption.
Name the major function of folate.
- Transport single carbon fragments in amino acid metabolism and nucleic synthesis.
- "Essential to cell division and red blood cell formation."
Describe the role of vitamin E.
- Acts as an antioxidant
- Enhances activity of vitamin A
- Prevents peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids
Name some of the effects of zinc deficiency.
- Loss of taste (hypogeusia)
- Loss of smell (hyposmia)
- Poor wound healing
- Short stature and development disorder in growth and reproduction