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Who came up with vaccination?
- via using cow pox as a vaccination for cow pox
Who came up with immunizations
- -used Jenners ideas of vaccination
What does the immune system describe?
tissues, cells, and molecules involved in the host protection against foreign threats
*What is the goal of every immune response?
- Eliminate the threat and secure the survival of the host
- (threat: doesn't have to be a microbe it can be neoplasia, tissue damage, foreign body etc..)
With respect to infections with pathogenic organisms the goal of the immune response it to.....
Eradicate (or at least control) the foreign invador
****KNOW FO SHO
INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM
- rapid, early phase response
- involves a variety of innate resistance mechanisms to recognize and respond to the presence of a pathogen
- based on germ-line encoded receptors
- present in all individuals at all times
- does not increase efficiency with repeated exposure to a given pathogen *NO MEMORY (response the same every time, cant change)
- recognises groups of related pathogens (not specifics, so ie it can ID Gram + from Gram - but not specific strain variations within) perfect tolerance to host, selected over evolutionary time (wont react against self, because long evolution)
*****KNO FO SHO
ADAPTIVE (ACQUIRED) IMMUNE SYSTEM
- slow, late phase response
- response by antigen-specific lymphocytes to antigen (lymphocytes are key cells*)
- generated by clonal selection of lymphocytes
- requires gene rearrangement of highly specific receptors
- Development of immunological memory. improves with repeated exposure
- specific for single molecules
- imperfect tolerance, selected in individual (recognises a very small specific microbe, but not a large general like Gram+, differentiates* each animal has a different antigen R, so each animal individually has its on set but do same thing across species)
*Innate Immune System: how it works and what it is
- First line of defense
- ancient, evolutionary conserved system
- relies on widely expressed proteins and receptors that recognize conserved microbial molecules
- diverse range of effector mechanisms
- NOT SIMPLE
* what are the major components of the innate immune system?
- Serum proteins: complement and acute phase proteins
- professional phagocytes: neutrophils and macrophages
- natural killer cells (innate killer cells)