Statistics Ch 0

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Author:
meme105
ID:
255545
Filename:
Statistics Ch 0
Updated:
2014-01-08 02:37:39
Tags:
Statistics
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  1. Raw Data
    Info with a context that has been gathered but not processed
  2. data
    raw data cleaned up so it can be analyzed
  3. individuals (subjects, experimental units)
    entities on which data is collected
  4. variable
    charasteristics measured on individuals
  5. observation (row of data, case)
    measurement of a variable or collection of variables
  6. Distribution of a Variable
    possible values of a variable and how often each possible value occurs
  7. normal distrubtion
    bell curve
  8. descriptive statistics
    numbers and graphs that represent the data
  9. inferential statistics
    techniques used to collect data from a small group that is used to conclude things about a larger group
  10. sample
    • the
    • small group used to find out things about a larger group
  11. population
    the larger group the the smaller group is used to draw conslusions about
  12. representitive
    ex: sample must be "representative" of the population

    things in sample have to have similar charasteristics to those in the population

    distribution of variables in sample needs to be similar to distribution of variables in population
  13. census
    when data collected from every individual in the population
  14. statistic
    numerical summary of a sample
  15. parameter
    numerical summary of a population
  16. categorial (qualitative) variable
    produces categorial data, assigns label or category to individual (ex: eye color, blue)
  17. quantitative variable
    • assigns meaningful # to an individual
    • (ex: persons height)
  18. nominal
    no natural ordering of values from least to greatest (ex:eye color)
  19. ordinal
    ordering values from least to greatest but when it does not make sense to subtract them (ex: cancer stages I-IV)
  20. interval
    • natural order of least to greatest
    • differencing (subtracting) makes sense
    • making a ratio (dividing) does not make sense
    • "0" does not mean "absence of"
  21. ratio
    • least to greatest natural ordering¬†
    • differencing makes sense
    • ratio makes sense
    • "0" means "absence of"
  22. observational study
    observes or questions individuals w/o imposing any conditions on them
  23. sampling method
    the choice of what individuals are going to represent the population
  24. randomized experiment (designed experiment)
    imposes something on individual then measures responses under imposed conditions
  25. disadvantage of observational study
    can only claim association between variables
  26. adv of randomized experiement
    can often determine cause and effect

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