Statistics Ch 0
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Raw Data
Info with a context that has been gathered but not processed
data
raw data cleaned up so it can be analyzed
individuals (subjects, experimental units)
entities on which data is collected
variable
charasteristics measured on individuals
observation (row of data, case)
measurement of a variable or collection of variables
Distribution of a Variable
possible values of a variable and how often each possible value occurs
normal distrubtion
bell curve
descriptive statistics
numbers and graphs that represent the data
inferential statistics
techniques used to collect data from a small group that is used to conclude things about a larger group
sample
the
small group used to find out things about a larger group
population
the larger group the the smaller group is used to draw conslusions about
representitive
ex: sample must be "representative" of the population
things in sample have to have similar charasteristics to those in the population
distribution of variables in sample needs to be similar to distribution of variables in population
census
when data collected from every individual in the population
statistic
numerical summary of a sample
parameter
numerical summary of a population
categorial (qualitative) variable
produces categorial data, assigns label or category to individual (ex: eye color, blue)
quantitative variable
assigns meaningful # to an individual
(ex
: persons height)
nominal
no natural ordering of values from least to greatest (ex:eye color)
ordinal
ordering values from least to greatest but when it does not make sense to subtract them (ex: cancer stages I-IV)
interval
natural order of least to greatest
differencing (subtracting) makes sense
making a ratio (dividing) does not make sense
"0" does not mean "absence of"
ratio
least to greatest natural ordering
differencing makes sense
ratio makes sense
"0" means "absence of"
observational study
observes or questions individuals w/o imposing any conditions on them
sampling method
the choice of what individuals are going to represent the population
randomized experiment (designed experiment)
imposes something on individual then measures responses under imposed conditions
disadvantage of observational study
can only claim association between variables
adv of randomized experiement
can often determine cause and effect
Card Set Information
Author:
meme105
ID:
255545
Filename:
Statistics Ch 0
Updated:
2014-01-08 07:37:39
Tags:
Statistics
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