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What is meant by the term "anaerobic threshold" ?
The transition from predominantly aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production as workload increases.
 AnT is the last oxygen uptake rate value (VO_{2}) fitting the linear trend when expired ventilation rate (V_{E}) in liters per minute (L/min) is plotted against VO_{2} in liter per minute (L/min)

Methods of Identifying AnT
(1) identification of breakaway or greater than linear increase in V _{E} when V _{E} is plotted against VO _{2} or workload: often referred to as VENTILLARY THRESHOLD
 note that VO _{2} as well as heart rate increase linearly or proportionally as workload increases and do not have a breakaway or greater than linear increase as workload increases
(2) identification of a breakaway or greater than linear increase in lactic acid production rate when lactic acid production rate is plotted against VO _{2} or workload
 often referred to as lactate threshold or onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)
(3) identification of a breakaway or greater than linear increase in carbon dioxide production rate when carbon dioxide production is plotted against VO _{2} or workload
(4) a peakingout in the fraction (%) of carbon dioxide in the expired air (F _{E}CO _{2}) and a bottomingout in the fraction (%) of oxygen in the expired air (F _{E}O _{2}) as workload increases
(5) a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 1216 (i.e., hard)
 VO_{2} has linear increase
 VCO_{2} has linear increase
 RER has linear increase
 V_{E} has breakaway at AnT
 HR has linear increase

What is meant by the term maximal oxygen uptake rate?
also known as VO_{2} Max
The maximal rate at which oxygen can be consumed per minute (1/min or ml/kg/min).
It is the highest VO_{2} value achieved during a graded maximal effort exercise test.

Methods of Identifying VO_{2} Max
(1) plateau (+ or  2 ml/kg/min) or decrease in VO_{2} as workload increases
(2) heart rate is within 10 beats per minute (bpm) of agepredicted maximal heart rate, which is estimated to be 220 minus ago in years for landbased leg exercise
(3) R or RER value (i.e., respiratory exchange ratio) equal to or greater than 1.0
(4) a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 1820 (i.e., very, very hard)

Why and how are cardiorespiratory endurace (maximal oxygen uptake rate), pulmonary (lung) volumes/function, body composition, and body building important for athletic performance and/or fitness and health?
Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability of the lungs and heart to talk in and transport adequate amounts of oxygen to the working muscles, allowing activities that involve large muscle masses to be performed over long periods of time
A person with better cardiorespiratory endurance will be able to perform better due to an increase in blood flow, as well as the transportation of oxygen from the blood to the muscle tissue due to the heart and lungs being more effective.

What factors tend to influence body composition?
(1) sex or gender
(2) age
(3) athlete vs. nonathlete
(4) race/ethnicity
(5) statistical consideration

What are the benefits of exercise in a weight control program?
 increased cumulative caloric expenditure
 counteracts potential decrease in basal metabolic rate typically associated with aging by maintaining or increase lean body weight
 prevents loss of lean body weight associated with caloric restriction
 compliments behavior modification and establishment of a more healthy lifestyle

What are the causes of regulatory obesity?
(1) lack of daily physical activity
(2) excess caloric consumption due to easy availability of food
(3) association of food with emotional responses
(4) social and cultural pressures of food consumption

Know and understand in detail the various exercise and weight control concepts covered on (1011 & 1012)
Caloric Consumption
If negative, weight loss
If positive, weight gain

How can underweightness and overweightness be identified?
Overweightness can be indicated by a body fat % of over 25% for males and 30% for females.
Having a body fat % of under 15% for females and less than 10% for males can be indentified as underweightness.
This is more difficult to identify because peak athletic performance may be at body fat % of less than those percentages.
Mostly using the normal values from reference weight to see what is accepted weight for a given frame size.

What are the two components of body composition?
Fat mass
Lean body mass

What are the density of the two components in relationship to the density of water?
Density of water is around 1.0
Fat is less dense than water, therefore it will float
Lean body mass or muscle mass is more dense than water, therefore it will sink

*Know and understand in detail the relationship between body weight, body volume, body density, and percent body fat
Body weight  weight on land measured by a scale
Body volume  (weight in air  weight in water)
Body density  body weight/body volume
Percent body fat  4.57/body density  4.142 x 100%

*Known and understand how to perform underwater weighing as well as how to calculate body volume, body density, percent body fat, fat weight, lean body weight, and ideal body weight goal from the data collected on land and during the underwater weighing process
Calculate lean body weight: BW  FW
 this will give you body fat %, then multiply by total body weight to find lean body mass
Calculate ideal body weight goal: current lean body weight/desired LBW expressed as a decimal
Calculate fat weight: BW x (%BF/100)
To perform underwater weighing, have the person take their nearest weight to .35 lbs and then you will test the subject 3 times having them expire all of their air as they are going under the water to achieve their ideal underwater weight. Use the values to find body fat percentages.

What is Archimedes Principle? How does it relate to underwater weighing?
Archimedes Principle states that an object submerged in water is buoyed up by a force equal to the volume of water displaced and that the volume of water displaced is equal to the weight lost by an object immersed in water.
In body composition determination, the specific gravity of lean body mass is 1.1 kg/L and the specific gravity of fat mass is .9 kf/L.
In underwater weighing conditions, body volume is basically equal to weight in air minus weight in water and body density is equal to body weight divided by body volume.

Know and understand how to perform anthropometric measurements as well as how to calculate body density, percent body fat, fat weight, lean body, and ideal body weight goal from the data collected from anthropometric skinfold and circumference measurements.
In order to perform skin fold measurements, you need to pinch the skin and have the device settle before taking the measurement.
It needs to be within .5 of the same number or more reads to be taken.
Look to see if there are differences in calculating skin fold values compared to underwater weighing and cirucmferences

Know and understand the sources of error for submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometry testing, pulmonary testing, underwater weighing for determination of body composition, and anthropometric testing for determination of body composition and build
Submax test source of error is a possible non linear increase, HR reading and also accurate measure of work
Pulmonary testing  room for error may be limited inability to maximally inspire or expire
Underwater weighing  may be error in ability to release all the air from the lungs and achieve a true underwater weight
Anthropomorphic measures  sites of measurement may be different for all individuals. The pinching method may not be as accurate for inexperienced individuals

What factors should be used in selecting an anthropometric equation for estimating body composition?
(1) Gender or Sex
(2) Age
(3) Athlete or NonAthlete (active vs. nonactive)
(4) Ethnicity or Race
(5) Statistical Considerations

What tissues are primarily assessed by skinfolds, circumferences, and diameters?
Skinfold  fat tissue
Circumference  fat tissue, bone tissue and lean body tissue
Diameters  usually bone

What are the units of measurement for skinfolds, circumferences and diameters?
Circumferences to the nearest .1 cm
Diameters to the nearest .1 cm
Skinfolds to the nearest .5 mm

Know and understand the three general models that underlie anthropometric equations used for estimating body composition.
Somatogram  to understand if portions of the body are proportional to one another
Somatotype  identifies an individual based on body type
Includes:
 endomorph: measured fatness uses all skinfolds
 mesomorphy: measures muscularity uses skinfolds circumferences, diameters and height and average of left and right sides
 ectomorphy: think and lankey, uses height and body weight to determine linearity
Reference weight  determines the amount of body weight an individual should have based on norms from people of that skeletal frame size

Know and understand in detail the measurements, calculations, and interpretation of results of body build evaluations from a somatogram, somatotyping, and reference weight.
Somatogram: uses circumferences of both the left and right extremity to measure the proportions of body weight to frame size. Uses bone (B), fat (C) and muscle (D) to determine relationships. Measurements are taken from different areas and then divided by the segmental constant. This is then compared to the total body value and then you can get the proportional score. The score is then plotted to the somatogram chart. A score from 95105 is within the normal range
Somatotyping: uses three different measures to identify the makeup of the body's build by its characteristics. The results are then plotted on a continuum. For the results of each category, you must find the corresponding number and plot the answer. The answers correlate to the three diferent components. 13 is low, 46 is moderate and 79 is high.
Reference Weight: take the diameter for all of the areas listed on the chart then divide the total body height in CM by the body constant for either males or females. To find A, square this value. Continue the calculations to find the reference weight and how many KG overweight the individual is. Normal weight is within 5KG of reference weight. Underweight is more than 5KG below. Overweight is more then 5KG above.

Know and understand how reference weight can be used in conjunction with body composition analysis to change fat weight and lean body weight.
Body composition will indicate the amounts of fat and lean mass a person has.
Reference weight will tell the person how much weight they should have.
Use the equation for current lean body weight/desired lean body weight expressed as a decimal to identify the changes in lean body weight and fat mass

*What are the primary body build characteristics described by ectomorphic, endomorphic, and mesomorphic body somatotype ratings?
ectomorphic  tallness and thinness
endomorphic  fattness
mesomorphic  muscularity
somatotype ratings: 13 low, 46 moderate, 79 high

In a somatogram, how are overweightness or under weightness (body weightframe size relationships), excessrve body fat distribution, and pronounced muscular development identified?
B is body weight  frame size relationship
C is excessive or low body fat distribution
D is pronounced high or low muscularity
Range of 95105 percent is normal. Anything above is overweight and below is underweight.

*Know and understand in detail how to administer a submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometer test as well as calculate and interpret the results of a submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometer test.
PROTOCOL
(1) set seat height to achieve almost full leg extension on the pedal downstroke and then have the subject establish a pedaling cadence of 50 rpm against "0" kg workload
(2) at 50 rpm pedal against an initial resistance load for 2 minutes (2 minute work periods)
for larger or more highly fit/trained individuals, the initial resistance or workload should be 1 kg or 300 kgm/min (300kgm = 50 rpm x 6m x 1kg)
for smaller, less fit/trained or older individuals, the initial resistance or workload should be 0.5 kg or 150 kgm/min (150 kgm = 50 rpm x 6m x 0.5 kg)
(3) take the heart rate during the last 30 seconds of the intial workload
 heart rate must be greater than or equal to 70% of PHR_{max}
 record the heart rate during the last 30 seconds of the last two minutes at this final, steadystate, workload
average the final two heart rates recorded during the last 30 seconds of the last two minutes
the average of the final two heart rates is the steadystate heart rate at the final steadystate workload
final workload is 4 minutes
(4) note the final steadystate workload and steadystate heart rate, then allow the subject to cooldown against "0" kg of resistance or workload as needed
(5) calculation of maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO _{2} Max)
 using the final workload and average steadystate heart rate values, find the preliminary VO _{2} Max in L/min from the conversion tables (i.e., males on 84 and females on 85)
using the preliminary VO _{2} Max, adjust the value based on the subject's age. In order to adjust for age, multiple the preliminary VO _{2} Max by the correction factor for listed
 using VO _{2} Max in L/min and body weight (BW), convert VO _{2} Max in L/min to ml/kg/min.
 BW in KG = BW in lb divided by 2.2046
 VO _{2} Max in ml/min = VO _{2} Max in L/min multiplied by 1000
 VO _{2} max in ml/kg/min = VO _{2} Max in ml/min divided by BW in KG
(6) evaluate and classify cardiorespiratory endurance fitness level based on maximal oxygen uptake rate expressed in ml/kg/min using table on 83

What are the three assumptions that submaximal leg ergometer tests are based upon?
no change in lean body weight
caloric restriction
endurance cardio program

In terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, how should maximal oxygen uptake rate be expressed?
VO_{2 }Max should expressed as ml/kg/min

What is considered to be a high, moderate, or average, and low maximal oxygen uptake rate?
HIGH
 8090% of HR max
 7585% of HRR
 7585% of VO_{2 }max
 RPE = 1517 (hard to very hard)
 Hyperventilatory Response
 Respiratory Distress (i.e., rapid breathing rate with deep or large breaths)
 Incapable of passing the "talk test"
 Duration = 4560 minutes per session
 Frequency = 5 days per week
MODERATE
 7080% of HR max
 6075% of HRR
 6075% of VO_{2} max
RPE = 1315 (somewhat hard to hard)
Aware of ventilation rate (i.e., increase breathing rate and depth)
 Duration = 3045 minutes per session
 Frequency = 4 days per week
LOW
 6070% of HR max
 5060% of HRR
 5060% of VO_{2} max
 RPE = 1113 (fairly light to somewhat hard)
 Unaware of ventilation rate
 Breathing rate and depth is comfortable
 Capable of passing the "talk test"
 Duration = 2030 minutes per session
 Frequency = 3 days per week

Know and understand in detail how to asses and calculate pulmonary lung volumes and functions as well as interpret the results of pulmonary (lung) tests.
Uses the spirometer and measures lung volume and tidal volume, among others to demonstrate inspiration and expiration
Use the chart based on age and height and sex to determine if the individuals vital capacity falls into the normal range for an idividual after the BTPS correction has been applied

*Know and understand the definitions of the various pulmonary (lung) volumes and capacities. How do the various pulmonary (lung) volumes are capacities change during exercise as well as longterm training?
All calculations to 2 decimals!
Tidal volume (TV): volume inspired or expired per breath
 no change with training
 increase with exercise
TV = B  C = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): maximal volume inspired from end inspiration
 increase with training
 decrease with exercise
IRV = C  D = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): maximal volume expired from end expiration
 increase with training
 slight decrease with exercise
ERV = A  B = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)
Residual volume (RV): volume remaining at the end of maximal expiration
 increase with training
 slight increase with exercise
RV = VC x 28% for males, VC x 24% for females
Total Lung Capacity (TLC): volume in lung at end of maximal inspiration
 increase with training
 slight decrease with exercise
TLC = VC + RV
Vital Capacity (VC): maximal volume forcefully expired after maximal inspiration
 increase with training
 slight decrease with exercise
VC = A  D = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)
Inspiratory Capacity (IC): maximal volume inspired from resting expiratory level
 increase with training
 increase with exercise
IC = B  D = X in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)

More Pulmonary Lab Calculations
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
FRC = ERV + RV
Forced Expiratory Volumes (FEV)
FEV 1.0 = H  D = x in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)
% VC1.0 = FEV1.0 / VC
FEV 2.0 = I  D = x in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)
% VC2.0 = FEV2.0 / VC
FEV 3.0 = J  D = x in mL (convert to L then x by BTPS)
% VC3.0 = FEV3.0 / VC
NOTE: if J is a higher value than A, use J rather than A when calculating VC and ERV

