Cerebrum - responsible for higher mental functions, movement, visceral functions, perception, behavioral reactions, and for the association and integration of these functions.
Motor Cortex - consists of the primary motor cortex and the premotor cortex
Premotor Cortex - causes general patterns of movement involving groups of muscles that perform specific tasks. Involved in the unconscious fine tuning of muscle activity required for highly-skilled movements.
Sensory Cortex - relays information into the motor cortex for control of motor activities
Basal Ganglia - functions in muscle tone, control of movement
Thalamus - acts primarily as a relay station of sensory input as well as interpretation of some sensory input, such as pain, temp, crude pressure and touch
Cerebellum - coordination of movement
Medulla Oblongata - controls heart rate, blood flow, equilibrium, swallowing, salivation and respiration
Pons - controls respiration; also involved in facial/neck sensations and the regulation of facial expressions, eye movement, taste, salivation and equilibrium.
Midbrain - conveys sensation of touch, proprioception and vibrations to the thalamus; also, involved in the regulation of eye movement, pupil size and lens shape.
Pyramidal System - Of the pyramidal motor tracts, 90% cross-over at the decussation of pyramids and 10% are ipsalateral
Extrapyramidal System - general movement patterns (i.e., muscle tone and posture, control of head movement to vision and hearing, and equilibrium), highly-skilled movements which facilitate the execution of whole movement patterns without conscious awareness of the individual parts (i.e., allows for fine tuning)
Sensory receptors that provide feedback to the CNS include:
- Muscle Spindles
- Golgi Tendon Organs
- Bulbs of Krause
- Pacinian Corpuscles
- Ruffini End Organs
Limbic System - provids input to the motor cortex regarding motivation drives and needs