Normal Cell and Adaptive Changes

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Normal Cell and Adaptive Changes
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2014-01-08 15:33:00
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Normal Cell Adaptive Changes
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Module 4 - Infectious Agents - Normal Cell and Adaptive Changes
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  1. What are the three main ways cells respond to stress?
    • Adaptive change
    • Reversible cell injury
    • Irreversible cell injury / cell death
  2. What are liable cells?  Give an example
    Liable cells are continuously replicating cells e.g. epithelium
  3. What are quiescent / stable cells?  Give an example
    Quiescent / stable cells are cells capable of division in response to demand (can go back into the cell cycle if they need to) e.g. hepatocytes, osteoblasts
  4. What are permanent cells?  Give an example
    Permanent cells are cells incapable of cell division e.g. neurones, cardiac muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells
  5. Permanent cells cannot be replaced if they are lost, what happens instead?
    • Repair occurs:
    • dead cells are removed
    • matrix (collagen) fills the gaps - scar tissue
    • result is the continuity and strength of tissue are maintained but specialised function is lost
  6. What is hypertrophy?  Is it a) increased cellular activity, b) decreased cellular activity or c) altered cell type or position?
    • Hypertrophy is an increase in cell (and organ) size
    • a) increased cellular activity
  7. What causes hypertrophy a) physiologically b) pathologically?
    • a) increased workload, hormonal stimulation
    • b) increased resistance e.g. heart muscle in raised BP, physical obstruction e.g. bladder if enlarged prostate
  8. What kind of cells does hypertrophy occur in?
    Permanent cells - cells incapable of cell division
  9. What are the cellular changes that take place in hypertrophy?
    • Increased membrane synthesis
    • Increased ATP
    • Increased enzyme activity
    • Increased myofilaments
  10. What are the limiting factors of hypertrophy?
    Vascular and nutrient supplies available for oxidative phosphorylation (if you cannot undergo OP faster you cannot continue to grow)
  11. What is hyperplasia?   Is it a) increased cellular activity, b) decreased cellular activity or c) altered cell type or position?
    • Hyperplasia is an increase in cell numbers
    • a) increased cellular activity
  12. What triggers hyperplasia?
    Response to hormones and other growth factors
  13. What kind of cells does hyperplasia occur in?
    Labile and stable cells - cells that can divide
  14. What is atrophy?  Is it a) increased cellular activity, b) decreased cellular activity or c) altered cell type or position?
    • Atrophy is a decrease in cell (and organ) size
    • b) decreased cellular activity
  15. What causes atrophy?
    Decreased nutrient supply or disuse
  16. What is physiological atrophy?  What is the term associated with this?
    • Physiological atrophy is a decrease in the size, number or amount of a cell, tissue or organ once normal size is reached
    • Involution
  17. What causes physiological atrophy / involution?
    • Altered hormonal stimulation eg post-partum uterus, mammary gland post lactation
    • Apoptosis of individual cells e.g. thymus with ageing
  18. What is pathological atrophy?
    Pathological atrophy is regressive change usually due to gradual and continuous injury
  19. What causes pathological atrophy?
    • Nutrient deficiency eg portosystemic shunt leads to a small liver
    • Decreased workload e.g. change in lifestyle or injury
    • Disuse eg muscle of a limb in a cast
    • Pressure eg atrophy, degeneration and necrosis of cells adjacent to tumours
    • Loss of endocrine stimulation e.g. prolonged steroid therapy leads to atrophy of adrenal zona fasiculata
  20. If there is serous atrophy of fat what will be the a) gross findings b) histological findings?
    • a) fat deposits partially or completely depleted 
    • b) adipocytes are small with increased space in between each other
  21. What is hypoplasia?  Give an example
    Hypoplasia is the failure to achieve adult size e.g. a retained testicle will not achieve full adult size as the abdomen is too hot (testes that remain in the abdomen are likely to become neoplastic)
  22. What is aplasia/agenesis?
    Aplasia/agenesis is when an organ never develops
  23. What is metaplasia?   Is it a) increased cellular activity, b) decreased cellular activity or c) altered cell type or position?
    • Metaplasia is the replacement of one adult cell type with another adult cell type 
    • c) altered cell type or position
  24. Give an example of metaplasia
    Squamous metaplasia - when ciliated / columnar epithelium changes to squamous epithelium.  This often happens in a smoker's trachea
  25. What is dysplasia?   Is it a) increased cellular activity, b) decreased cellular activity or c) altered cell type or position?
    • Dysplasia is the disorganisation of cells in a tissue (loss of cell polarity)
    • c) altered cell type or position

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