Topic 3: Intro to ANS

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jlyip89
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255623
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Topic 3: Intro to ANS
Updated:
2014-01-09 03:29:40
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ANS
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systems 1
Description:
systems lecture 1.3
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  1. divisions of the nervous system
    • CNS (brain + spinal cord)
    • PNS (somatic + autonomic branches)
  2. role of PNS
    transmit signals between CNS and the receptors & effectors in the rest of the body
  3. PNS afferent
    • - signals toward CNS
    • - sensory
  4. PNS efferent
    • - signals from CNS
    • - motor
  5. ANS
    part of the efferent division of the PNS
  6. Divisions of ANS
    • 1) sympathetic
    • 2) parasympathetic

    • These two divisions rarely operate
    • independently!
  7. 2 major Neurotransmitters in the Efferent
    PNS
    • 1) Acetylcholine
    • 2) Catecholamines
  8. Acetylcholine
    - associated w/ what nervous system?
    - associated w/ what type of receptor?
    The NT associated w/ ANS ganglia and parasympathetic muscarinic receptors
  9. Acetylcholine (ACh) released in?
    - Neurons that release ACh are called?
    - receptros sensitive to ACh are called?
    • the NT released at the ANS neuromuscular junction (skeletal muscle), in:
    • - symp. ganglia
    • - para. ganglia
    • - para. post neurons

    • - Neurons that release ACh are called cholinergic neurons
    • - receptors sensitive to ACh are called cholinergic receptors
  10. Catecholamines
    - examples?

    - Neurons that release catecholamines are called?

    - receptors sensitive to catecholamines are called?
    - ex: epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in the ANS

    - Neurons that release catecholamines are called adrenergic neurons

    - receptors sensitive to catecholamines are called adrenergic receptors
  11. Epinephrine

    - released by?
    • - circulates in the blood as an
    • adrenergic hormone

    - released by the adrenal medulla
  12. Nor-epinephrine
    - released by?
    sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons
  13. nor-epinephrine is in what family of NT?

    nor-epinephrine is the NT associated with what type of receptors?
    nor-epinephrine is in the catecholamine family

    • nor-epinephrine is the NT associated w/ sympathetic postganglionic α and β
    • receptors
  14. epinephrine is in what family of NT?

    epinephrine is released by?

    epinephrine is release not as a NT but as a...?

    epinephrine is associated with what type of receptors?
    epinephrine is in the catecholamine family

    epinephrine is released as a hormone from the adrenal medulla and circulates to stimulate α and β receptors.
  15. agonists
    • Other molecules or chemicals that mimic
    • normal NTs to activate downstream signal transduction pathways
  16. antagonists
    • Other molecules or chemicals that mimic
    • NTs to compete with and block normal NT function.

    Anesthetics are almost always antagonists
  17. types of plasma membrane receptor (4)
    • 1) ligand gated
    • 2) tyrosine kinase
    • 3) JAK Kinase
    • 4) G-Protein coupled
  18. which plasma membrane receptor type is mostly found in the heart?
    G-protein coupled receptor
  19. which plasma membrane receptor types is mostly found in smooth muscles?
    - Smooth muscle utilizes all (depending on the function):

    • 1) ligand gated
    • 2) tyrosine kinase
    • 3) JAK Kinase
    • 4) G-Protein coupled of these receptor

    - There can be multiple actions on same cell with same neurotransmitter
  20. What are the 2 main classes of cholinergic receptors?
    • 1) Nicotinic
    • 2) Muscarinic
  21. Location of acetylcholine receptors for:
    - nicotinic receptors
    - muscarinic receptors
    • Nicotinic receptor locations:
    • 1) postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia

    2) neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles

    3) some CNS neurons

    • muscarinic receptor locations:
    • 1) smooth muscles
    • 2) cardiac muscles
    • 3) gland cells
  22. Location of epinephrine and norepinephrine receptors
    • 1) smooth muscles
    • 2) cardiac muscles
    • 3) gland cells
  23. Alpha (α) & Beta (β) Receptors classifications are based on?

    alpha receptor response order?

    beta receptor response order?
    • classified based on each receptor type’s response to specific agonists such as
    • nor-epinephrine, epinephrine, or the synthetic catecholamine isoproterenol.

    For the alpha (α) receptors: NE > E >>> I

    For the beta (β) receptors:   I > E > NE
  24. what is the distinction between alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors?
    • Alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors are
    • distinguished by their sensitivity to various drugs

    • Alpha-1 receptors is the major
    • adrenergic receptor subtype in most effector tissues, but comprise only 0.2% of
    • the receptors in the heart. 

    • Alpha-2 receptors are found mainly on
    • pre-junctional nerve cells where they inhibit NT release
  25. What is the distinction btwn beta-1 and beta 2 receptors?
    distinguished by their sensitivity to nor-epinephrine (β1 > β2) and are distributed among the effector organs

    • Ex:
    • beta-1 receptors predominate in heart beta-2 receptors predominate in most arterioles and coronary vasculature.

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