chapter 8 space

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chapter 8 space
2014-01-09 11:35:26
space chpater

glossary terms for chapter 8
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  1. electromagnetic radiation
    • radiation that is from electromagnetic pulses
    • include radio, microwave, infrared, light, UV, X-rays, and gamma rays
    • used to find distant galaxies etc.
  2. refracting telescope
    • uses the laws of refraction to see far away objects up close
    • curved lens
  3. reflecting telescope
    • a telescope that uses the laws of reflection to work
    • look at it sideways
  4. satellite
    • any object that orbits a planet
    • man-made or a moon
  5. orbiters
    • satellites that orbit objects
    • eg. GPS
  6. solar nebula theory
    • 1. protostar starts to form in a nebula
    • 2. planetesimals start forming
    • 3. star is born and planets are formed as dust settles in a disc
  7. star
    • a ball of matter that is in the process of nuclear fusion
    • many different types
  8. nebula
    • a large cloud of gas in space
    • eg. crab nebula
  9. protostar
    almost a star, not quite hot enough
  10. nuclear fusion
    • the fusing of nuclei to form larger atoms
    • how everything other than hydrogen is made
  11. photosphere
    outer layer of the sun and any star
  12. sunspot
    a magnetically charged point that is slightly cooler than the rest of the Sun
  13. solar wind
    • wind created during solar flares
    • creates auroras
  14. solar flare
    when a burst of flame erupts from a point on the Sun
  15. importance of the sun
    • it creates weather
    • it heats the earth to hospitable temperatures
    • it is used in photosynthesis
  16. luminosity
    how bright a star is in watts
  17. absolute magnitude
    the brightness of a star at 32.6 light years away
  18. spectroscope
    used to find a spectrum, which can identify the elements present in a star's photosphere
  19. spectral lines
    a spectroscope's reading
  20. hertzsprung-russell diagram
    • a diagram that maps luminosity against temperature
    • patterns can be seen in it
  21. main sequence
    • the main pattern in a H-R diagram
    • the brighter the hotter
  22. white dwarf
    a superhot remnant of a star that does not shine very brightly
  23. supernova
    • a giant explosion caused by a large star dying
    • creates neutron star
  24. neutron star
    • a tiny star that is super hot and super bright
    • mostly neutrons
  25. how low mass stars evolve
    they live cool and not very bright for a long time (100 billion y) and then die and become white dwarfs
  26. intermediate mass stars
    just like low mass stars, but brighter with shorter lives
  27. how high mass stars evolve
    burn through gas quickly, then turn into either a supernova/neutron star or a black hole
  28. black hole
    a point in space with inescapable mass and gravity