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Erickson stage for Infant
Trust vs. Mistrust
Erickson stage for Toddler
Autonomy vs. Shame
Erickson stage for Pre School
Initiative vs. Guilt
Erickson stage for School Age
Industry vs. Inferiority
Erickson stage for Adolescent
Identity vs. Role Confusion
What does Trust teach a child?
that they are inherently good and the world is good.
Essential to get consistent, predictable, reliable care....brings hope
According to Piaget the infant is
egocentric....total self absorption and inable to view the world from other's pt of view
What do infants understand when it comes to communication/language?
tones, inflections of voices....not words
When does the social smile develop in an infant
When do infants start making unmeaningful sounds like ma, da, ahhhh
When do they get a vocab of several words like mama, dada and bye bye
When do teeth erupt in infants?
At what age do infants start lifting their head?
At what age do babies start to play with their feet?
What age do infants start to transfer things from hand to hand
When do most infants start to crawl and stand?
When do babies start to walk with holding somebodys hands or alone?
What is autonomy for a toddler?
the child has a sense of self separate from their parents....they will assert their will and insist on their own way
Age for Tertiary Circular Reactions
What is it?
- 12-18 months
- toddlers learning through trial and error
- experimentation in their environment to see what will happen-dump, fill,
Age for Internalizations of Schema
What is it?
- 19-24 months
- Use of symbols and words to describe absent people or objects
- Beginning problem solving mentally rather than repeating actions
- Start imitating parents
How many words do kids speak at 2 yo?
50 words and 2 word sentences
Toddlers and words....
they understand more than they can say
What is the main achievement of a toddler?
When can a baby walk up and down stairs?
At what age can a toddler hold a cup and able to remove clothes?
Big mile stones for the 2 year old
Dress self and brush their own teeth
What kind of play do toddlers do?
What is the pre schoolers attitude?
- I can do it myself
- They are goal directive, competitive and imaginative
- Start to get in to their gender
Difference between a toddler and pre schooler?
They are the same but the pre schooler starts to have "magical thinking"
What occurs with the language of a pre schooler?
- use of more words and in sentences
- correct gammar usage
- use of pronouns
How should we approach a pre schooler?
- give them choices
- use play to explain procedures
- keep it simple
- Use pictures/books/puppets
- Be concise and limit length of explanations
When do we explain a procedure to a pre schooler prior to doing it?
1-3 hours before the event
Pre schoolers and growth
it is minimal now, and most will occur in the legs
At what stage does the
resp rate slow
heart size increase
When are all 20 baby teeth present?
by age 3....and they can start to fall out by the end of this stage!! (6)
Whend oes coordination and muscle strength increase rapidly
What allows for the pre schooler to perfect fine and gross motor skills?
- brain size increase
- nerve myelination
At what age does a child show if they are right or left hand dominant?
At what age is a child independent, able to dress themselves completely, eat and go to the bathroom without help?
What does the school age child master?
- useful skills and tools of their culture
- ability to play and work with peers
How does the school age child think?
logically and systematically, but concrete objects and activities are needed
When do kids start being able to describe concepts, thoughts and feelings?
How should we approach a school age child?
- use photos/books/charts/videos to explain things
- use conversation that gets them to critically think
- establish limits and consequences
When prepping a school aged child for a procedure....how long prior to the start do we explain things?
When is brain growth complete?
10 years old
What kind of thinking do adolescents do?
abstract and futuristic
Adolescents and choices...
- understand consequences of behaviors
- uses rules to figure out how to act socially
- deductive reasoning
- is increasingly less egocentric
How do we approach an adolescent
- engage in convo. about their world/interests
- use photos/books/diagrams/charts/videos to explain
- respect privacy
How long prior to a procedure to we explain it to a teen?
1 week in advance
What age does a baby roll over?
What age does a baby sit on its own and start to babble?
At what age does a baby understand NO
When does a baby have fine mother pincher grasp?
When can a kid ride a tricycle
When is a kid able to stack 2 cubes?
When is a kid able to stack 4 cubs?
When can a kid point to their body parts?
Best discipline philosophy
Contraction without parental consent at age
If a minor can still sign for self if
- in the military
- emancipated and pay for self
If on formula....wean from the bottle to a cup at how hold?
By what age are kids eating 3 meals a day?
What kind of milk do babies drink at age 1
Why are oral meds absorbed differently in babies/kids?
- less gastric acids
- emptying time is intermittent and unpredictable
- gut motility and peristalsis is slower causing GREATER ABSORPTION
At what age do pancreatic enzymes vary causing inconsistences in oral med absorption
under 3 mo
grey baby syndrome
When is the blood brain barrier mature?
age 2....so meds can get thru
What can happen to babies when given sedation meds?
may cause an opposite effect cuz neurologic system is immature
What age is the liver metabolism more active, which will alter drug metabolism
Toddlers and Pre School
Supplement to give breast fed babies
Neonates have more variability in blood flow to the muscles causing
delayed or variable med absorption
GI function in the premie
it is premature so it can take up to 4 days to get to normal levels
Diarrhea illnesses do what to absorption of meds?
lessen absorption....so have a less therapeutic effect
Water soluble meds need to be higher or lower?
higher cuz have lots of fluid
When a baby is sick/fever what do we do about water soluble meds?
adjust them cuz could be dehydrated
Muscle mass in kids vs. adults
Infants and plasma proteins...result?
- less for protein bound meds to bind to
Liver metabolism is what in infants?
Why are neonates and infants at risk for toxic blood levels of meds?
- They get dehydrated easy
- decreased GFR