Growth & Development Nuggets

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  1. Erickson stage for Infant
    Trust vs. Mistrust
  2. Erickson stage for Toddler
    Autonomy vs. Shame
  3. Erickson stage for Pre School
    Initiative vs. Guilt
  4. Erickson stage for School Age
    Industry vs. Inferiority
  5. Erickson stage for Adolescent
    Identity vs. Role Confusion
  6. What does Trust teach a child?
    that they are inherently good and the world is good. 

    Essential to get consistent, predictable, reliable care....brings hope
  7. According to Piaget the infant is self absorption and inable to view the world from other's pt of view
  8. What do infants understand when it comes to communication/language?
    tones, inflections of voices....not words
  9. When does the social smile develop in an infant
    2 months
  10. When do infants start making unmeaningful sounds like ma, da, ahhhh

    When do they get a vocab of several words like mama, dada and bye bye
    6 mo.

    1 year
  11. When do teeth erupt in infants?
    6-9 months
  12. At what age do infants start lifting their head?
    1 month
  13. At what age do babies start to play with their feet?
    4 months
  14. What age do infants start to transfer things from hand to hand
    7 months
  15. When do most infants start to crawl and stand?
    9 months
  16. When do babies start to walk with holding somebodys hands or alone?
    12 months
  17. What is autonomy for a toddler?
    the child has a sense of self separate from their parents....they will assert their will and insist on their own way
  18. Age for Tertiary Circular Reactions
    What is it?
    • 12-18 months
    • toddlers learning through trial and error
    • experimentation in their environment to see what will happen-dump, fill,
  19. Age for Internalizations of Schema
    What is it?
    • 19-24 months
    • Use of symbols and words to describe absent people or objects
    • Beginning problem solving mentally rather than repeating actions
    • Start imitating parents
  20. How many words do kids speak at 2 yo?
    3 yo?
    50 words and 2 word sentences

    250 words
  21. Toddlers and words....
    they understand more than they can say
  22. What is the main achievement of a toddler?
  23. When can a baby walk up and down stairs?
    2 yo
  24. At what age can a toddler hold a cup and able to remove clothes?
    18 mo
  25. Big mile stones for the 2 year old
    Dress self and brush their own teeth
  26. What kind of play do toddlers do?
    • Solitary
    • Onlooker
    • Associative
  27. What is the pre schoolers attitude?
    • I can do it myself
    • They are goal directive, competitive and imaginative
    • Start to get in to their gender
  28. Difference between a toddler and pre schooler?
    They are the same but the pre schooler starts to have "magical thinking"
  29. What occurs with the language of a pre schooler?
    • use of more words and in sentences
    • correct gammar usage
    • use of pronouns
  30. How should we approach a pre schooler?
    • give them choices
    • use play to explain procedures
    • keep it simple
    • Use pictures/books/puppets
    • Be concise and limit length of explanations
  31. When do we explain a procedure to a pre schooler prior to doing it?
    1-3 hours before the event
  32. Pre schoolers and growth
    it is minimal now, and most will occur in the legs
  33. At what stage does the
    resp rate slow
    lungs grow
    HR decrease
    BP increase 
    heart size increase
    Pre school
  34. When are all 20 baby teeth present?
    by age 3....and they can start to fall out by the end of this stage!! (6)
  35. Whend oes coordination and muscle strength increase rapidly
    btwn 3-5
  36. What allows for the pre schooler to perfect fine and gross motor skills?
    • brain size increase
    • nerve myelination
  37. At what age does a child show if they are right or left hand dominant?
  38. At what age is a child independent, able to dress themselves completely, eat and go to the bathroom without help?
  39. What does the school age child master?
    • useful skills and tools of their culture
    • ability to play and work with peers
  40. How does the school age child think?
    logically and systematically, but concrete objects and activities are needed
  41. When do kids start being able to describe concepts, thoughts and feelings?
    school age
  42. How should we approach a school age child?
    • use photos/books/charts/videos to explain things
    • use conversation that gets them to critically think
    • establish limits and consequences
  43. When prepping a school aged child for a long prior to the start do we explain things?
    1-5 days
  44. When is brain growth complete?
    10 years old
  45. What kind of thinking do adolescents do?
    abstract and futuristic
  46. Adolescents and choices...
    • understand consequences of behaviors
    • uses rules to figure out how to act socially
    • deductive reasoning
    • is increasingly less egocentric
  47. How do we approach an adolescent
    • engage in convo. about their world/interests
    • use photos/books/diagrams/charts/videos to explain
    • respect privacy
  48. How long prior to a procedure to we explain it to a teen?
    1 week in advance
  49. What age does a baby roll over?
    4 months
  50. What age does a baby sit on its own and start to babble?
    6 months
  51. At what age does a baby understand NO
    9 months
  52. When does a baby have fine mother pincher grasp?
    9 month
  53. When can a kid ride a tricycle
    3 yo
  54. When is a kid able to stack 2 cubes?

    When is a kid able to stack 4 cubs?
    14 mo

    18 mo
  55. When can a kid point to their body parts?
    16 mo
  56. Best discipline philosophy

    • negotiate
    • structure
    • consequences
  57. Contraction without parental consent at age
  58. If a minor can still sign for self if
    • prego
    • in the military
    • emancipated and pay for self
  59. If on formula....wean from the bottle to a cup at how hold?
    6 months
  60. By what age are kids eating 3 meals a day?
    8 mo
  61. What kind of milk do babies drink at age 1
  62. Why are oral meds absorbed differently in babies/kids?
    • less gastric acids
    • emptying time is intermittent and unpredictable
    • gut motility and peristalsis is slower causing GREATER ABSORPTION
  63. At what age do pancreatic enzymes vary causing inconsistences in oral med absorption
    under 3 mo
  64. Sulfonamides cause
  65. Chloraphenicol causes
    grey baby syndrome
  66. When is the blood brain barrier mature?
    age meds can get thru
  67. What can happen to babies when given sedation meds?
    may cause an opposite effect cuz neurologic system is immature

  68. What age is the liver metabolism more active, which will alter drug metabolism
    Toddlers and Pre School
  69. Supplement to give breast fed babies
    V. D
  70. Neonates have more variability in blood flow to the muscles causing
    delayed or variable med absorption
  71. GI function in the premie
    it is premature so it can take up to 4 days to get to normal levels
  72. Diarrhea illnesses do what to absorption of meds?
    lessen have a less therapeutic effect
  73. Water soluble meds need to be higher or lower?
    higher cuz have lots of fluid
  74. When a baby is sick/fever what do we do about water soluble meds?
    adjust them cuz could be dehydrated
  75. Muscle mass in kids vs. adults
    • 25% kids
    • 40% adults
  76. Infants and plasma proteins...result?
    • lower
    • less for protein bound meds to bind to
  77. Liver metabolism is what in infants?
  78. Why are neonates and infants at risk for toxic blood levels of meds?
    • They get dehydrated easy
    • decreased GFR
Card Set:
Growth & Development Nuggets
2014-01-29 13:34:15
N173 Chart
Things from G&D chart to know for clinicals and exams.
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