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What is used to diagnose Schizophrenia in the US?
The Diagnostic statistical manual
What is used to diagnose Schizophrenia in the UK?
The International classification of diseases
What characteristic symptoms must be present in order for Schizophrenia to be diagnosed?
- Present for at least a one month period, two or more of:
- Disorganised speech
- disorganised or catatonic behaviour
- negative symptoms (flat effect etc)
What social/occupational dysfunctions must be present in order for diagnosis of schizophrenia to occur?
For a significant proportion of time since onset, one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relationships or self care are markedly below the level achieved prior to onset
What did Whaley find in 2001?
The correlation coefficient between clinicians in diagnosing Schizophrenia was as low as + 0.11
What did copeland find in 1971?
- Description of a patient given to 134 US and 194 British psychiatrists
- 69% of US psychiatrists diagnosed the patient with Schizophrenia whereas only 2% of the British psychiatrists did
How long must schizophrenic symptoms persist in order for a diagnosis to be made?
- 6 months
- At least one month of characteristic symptoms
Why is it difficult to diagnose Schizophrenia?
- The symptoms overlap with many other psychotic disorders such as manic depression
- This often leads to misdiagnosis
- Misdiagnosis could lead to ineffective treatment and labelling
What did Goater et Al find in 1999
- 5 year study in London
- Found that more black minorities were more likely to be taken in by police, detained and given emergency injections at hospitals
- More likely to be diagnosed as schizophrenic
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