Space Chapter 8
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Radiation consisting of electromagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light (such as visible light, radio waves, and X rays).
A telescope that uses a lens to collect the light from an object.
A telescope that uses a mirror to collect light from an object.
An artificial (human-made) object or vehicle that orbits Earth, the Moon, or other celestial bodies; also, a celestial body that orbits another of larger size (e.g. The Moon is Earth's natural satellite).
Observatories that orbit other planets and take high-resolution images. They have short life expectancies, such as 2-3 years.
Solar Nebula Theory
The theory that describes how stars and planets form from contracting, spinning disks of gas and dust.
A celestial body made of hot gases, mainly hydrogen and some helium.
A vast cloud of gas and dust, which may be the birthplace of stars and planets.
Hot, condensed object at the centre if a nebula.
The process of energy production in which hydrogen nuclei combine to form helium nuclei.
The surface layer of the Sun.
An area of strong magnetic fields on the photosphere.
A stream of fast-moving charged particles ejected by the Sun into the solar system.
An event in which magnetic fields explosively eject intense streams of charged particles into space.
Importance of the Sun
- 1. The Sun is needed for all life on Earth.
- 2. Solar energy powers the winds and ocean currents.
- 3. It drives all weather.
- 4. Required for photosynthesis.
A star's total energy output per second; its power in joules per second (J/s).
The magnitude of a star that we would of observe if the star were placed 32.6 light-years from Earth.
An optical instrument that produces a spectrum from a narrow beam of light, and usually projects the spectrum onto a photographic plate or a digital director.
Certain specific wavelengths within a spectrum characterized by lines; spectral lines identify specific chemical elements.
Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) Diagram
A graph that compares the properties of stars.
A narrow band of stars on the H-R diagram that runs diagonally from the upper left (bright, hot stars) to the lower right (cool, dim stars); about 90% of stars, including the Sun, are in the main sequence.
A small dim, hot star.
A massive explosion in which the entire outer portion of the star is blown off.
A star so dense that only neutrons can live at its core.
How Low-Mass Stars Evolve.
Low-mass stars consume their hydrogen slowly over a period that can be as long as 100 billion years. They lose significant mass, essentially evaporating. They become a very faint white dwarf and do not produce energy.
How Intermediate-Mass Stars Evolve
Intermediate-mass stars consume their hydrogen slowly over a period of about 10 billion years. When all the hydrogen is used up, the core collapses. As the core-contracts, the temperature increases and the outer layers begin to expand and appear red. This phase is called the red giant. Eventually the layers will disappear into space and it will become a white dwarf.
How High-Mass Stars Evolve
They consume their fuel even faster than intermediate-mass stars. They die more quickly and violently. The core heats up to much higher temperatures. Heavier elements for by fusion, and the star expands into a super giant. Eventually, iron forms at the core and cannot release energy through fusion, and the core collapses violently, shock waves travelling throughout the star. The outer portion of the star explodes, producing a supernova. The heaver elements are ejected into the universe and form planets and other bodies.
Black holes are a region of space that have such strong gravitational fields that nothing can escape them.
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