Pharm test 1

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Pharm test 1
2014-01-12 20:29:59
Pharm test
Pharm test 1
Pharm test 1
Show Answers:

  1. What is a nursing diagnosis
    a clinical judgment about individual, family, or community experiences/responses to actual or potential health problems/life processes
  2. What are outcome criteria
    Specific measurable realistic statements for goal attainment
  3. What does it  mean when two drugs are Bioequivalent
    similar bioavailability and produce the same effect at the site of physiological activity
  4. What is a placebo
    an inactive (inert) substance that is not a drug but is formulated to resemble a drug for research purposes.
  5. What is moderate sedation
    a milder form of general anesthesia that causes partial or complete loss of consciousness but does not generally reduce normal respiratory drive.
  6. What are the restrictions for prescription for schedule I-III drugs?
    CI:  Only with approved protocol, high abuse potential, no medical use, severe physical and psychology dependency potential

    CII:  Writtain prescription only, no refills, warning label, high abuse potential, accepted medical use, sever physical and psycology dependancy

    CIII:  Writtain or oral prescription, expires in 6 months, no more than 5 refills in 6 months, less than CII abuse potential, accepted medical use, moderate to low dependency potential
  7. What does the nurse need to know about refills for an analgesic that is classified as Schedule c-III
    It can be refilled up to 5X in 6 months, then must see pcp
  8. What is another name for Medicinal herbs according to Dietary Supplement & Health Education Act of 1994 law?
    Dietary supplements
  9. Which learning domain does patient education occur in
    cognitive, affective, and psychomotor
  10. Which learning domain does patients return demonstration occur in
    psychomotor domain
  11. What is the purpose of proton pump inhibitors in a patient with an NG tube in CCU
    Highly effective for treatment of gerd, stress ulcers, GI Bleeding, and for acid suppressing therapy.
  12. With affective learning domain, what does the nurse consider?
    Attitude & Emotions
  13. A patient is to receive local anesthesia with epinephrine, why was epinephrine used
    fight or flight sympathetic nervous system which is effected by the epinephrine which is a vasocronstrictor
  14. Know the 6 rights of medication administration:  Provide an example of each
    Dose, Drug, Documentation, Time, Route, Patient
  15. Know what highly protein bound drugs mean
    Circulate through the body binds to the protein to go through plasma
  16. What body changes occur in the elderly
    gastric less acidic, emptying slowed movement through GI slowed blood blow to GI
  17. How does "gastric less acidic, emptying slowed movement through GI slowed blood blow to GI in the elderly" effect absorption of medication
    Meds are absorbed slower and low doses last longer
  18. Which dietary information is important for the patient taking calcium supplements?
    Do not take calcium supplements within 1 to 2 hours of eating large amounts of fiber-containing foods, such as bran and whole-grain cereals or breads, especially if you are being treated for hypocalcemia (not enough calcium in your blood).Do not drink large amounts of alcohol or caffeine-containing beverages (usually more than 8 cups of coffee a day), or use tobacco.

    Contraindications-hyperglycemia, ventricular fibrillation of the heart, and known allergy to a specific calcium drug product.  Symptoms of toxicity are anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and constipation.  If administered intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, mild to sever local reactions including burning, necrosis and soughing of tissue cellulitis and soft tissue calcification, may occur.  Venous irritation may occur with intravenous administration.  Long term excessive can result in cardiac irregularities, delirium, and coma.
  19. What is a medication error
    • Giving wrong med
    • wrong time
    • wrong patient
  20. What nursing diagnosis would be appropriate for a patient who has just received a prescription for a new medication?
    • Deficient knowledge
    • Anxiety related to new medication as evidenced by patient is unaware of how to use med
  21. What is the category of safety regulation of drugs by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding herbal remedies during pregnancy
    • None
    • Can't be guaranteed on how much is in each supplement so not recommended for pregnancy
  22. What trimester of the pregnancy does drug transfer more likely to occur
    Last trimester
  23. Why is it more likely for a drug transfer to occur in the last trimester
    There is increased blood transferred to the fetus
  24. What type of dosage calculations formula do you use with pediatric patients?
    MG to KG
  25. During a double blinded study of a new medication what must the researcher add to prevent bias of the research
  26. Describe two types of pain, acute & chronic
    Acute:  Paint that is sudden in onset, usually subsides when treated, and typically occurs over less than a 6 week period.

    Chronic:  Persistent or recurring pain that is often difficult to treat.  Includes any pain lasting longer than 3 to 6 months, pain lasting longer than 1 month after healing of an acute injury or pain that accompanies a non healing tissue injury
  27. What is palliative care
    Improve quality of life for both the patient and the family, typically in the end stages of an illnesses.
  28. What condition would you use caution with the use of caffeine
    Heart disease, sleep, history of peptic ulcers
  29. What is common use of feverfew
  30. When taking alcohol with selegiline (Eldepryl), what patient education is necessary and what side effect may occur
    Can't have anything with tryliamine, such as cheese, meat, beer.  Life threatening, seizures, hypertension crises
  31. Buspar is given for which disorder
    Generalized persistent anxiety
  32. When injecting Heparin into the fatty tissue of the stomach what route is it
  33. What route causes absorption in the stomach &/or small intestine
  34. What route is injected into the Dermis of the skin
  35. What is important to know about Phenobarbital and stress
    Used for seizures and can't handle mild stress situations.  Deprivation of REM sleep, once a day dose
  36. What is a side effect of aluminum antacids
  37. H2 antagonists has interactions if taken with what other drugs
    theophylline, warfarin, lidocaine, phenytoin, Ketoconazole
  38. What is Naltrexone given for
    As an antagonist against opiods for respiratory depression
  39. What effect will a patient have who attempts to use drugs while taking naltrexone?
    They won't get the euphoric high they had before.
  40. What drug promotes gastric emptying for tube feedings thru a gastrostomy
    Prokinetic drugs (Reglan)
  41. What is a common adverse effect from nutritional supplements through an N/G tube
  42. Which nutritional supplement provides complex nutrients
    Ensure Plus
  43. When a patient in rehab has opioid withdrawal symptoms, what drug is part of the treatment
  44. When do you give a med?  The timing of a drug dose, what is important to know when giving a drug
    When ordered or the time ordered & must know when it was last given.  take with meals, allergies
  45. What happens when a drug is taken orally
    highest level of 1st pass effect; elixer, tablets
  46. What is pharmacokinetic
    Study of how meds are absorbed and excreted
  47. What role does the liver have in the effects in the pharmacokinetic phase
    It metabolizes the drugs
  48. What are common responses of an elderly patient when taking sedative drug
    • laxative, anticoagulants, diuretics -Adverse effect, psychotic like state, 
    • day sedation, lethargy, forgetfulness, increased fall risk
  49. Describe the effects of drugs in pediatric patients
    • Slower GI but faster IM absorption in infancy
    • More body water vs. lipid in early life
    • Limited protein binding in infants
    • Larger liver/body weight ratio in infants
    • Immature enzymes in neonates
    • Larger brain/body weight ratio and
    • higher blood–brain barrier permeability in younger children
    • Immature renal function in infants
  50. Upon admission which findings would reflect a component of a cultural assessment
    Appearance, language, dress, religious practices, beliefs and healing process
  51. What is the proper notation of the amount of a drug ordered that is less than 1
    place a zero before the decimal point
  52. When a patient questions a medication the nurse is giving what is the nurse's action.
    • Check for correct medication
    • educate the patient on the med and usage
  53. Describe a measurable goal
    Changes in behavior through nursing care and are developed in collaboration with the patient.  Can be categorized into physicologic, psychological, spiritual, sexual, cognitive, motor, and/or other domains
  54. What is the teaching learning process of a new drug, incision etc?
    Cognitive domain, psychomotor demonstration
  55. How do you teach an elderly patient to organize their meds who has several new pills?
    Pill organizer, calender, form daily regement
  56. When the patient questions a nurse about a wrong pill, what is the correct response
    Check the chart and explain the med and usage
  57. What medication has a potential interaction with garlic
  58. What are the side effects of stimulants
    • Hyperactivity, talkative, increase heart rate and temp
    • most non problematic-constipation, diarrhea, headache
  59. What are the side effects of opioids
    decreased respiration, constipation
  60. What is the antidote of opioids
  61. Pepto bismol is given for diarrhea, what class of drugs interacts with it
    NSAID, oral hypoglycemic meds)
  62. What nursing diagnosis would you use during surgery with anesthesia
    Impaired gas exchange
  63. If a pt develops a sudden elevated body temperature following surgery, what do you suspect?  and what action do you take
    • Possible infection <100 Call DR
    • malignant hyperthermia
  64. What nursing diagnosis would you make for a patient taking cyclobenzaprine (flexerial)
    Risk for injury and falls related to adverse effect of decreased sensorium
  65. What is the drug class and side effects for temazepam (restoril)?
    dizziness, weak, depresion, sleep disturbances Class II (sedative, incomnia)
  66. What vitamin or mineral deficiency causes the condition such as infantile rickets tetany & Osteomalacia
    Vitamin D
  67. Alcoholic patients are at risk for Wenickes encephalopathy which vitamin will the nurse give to prevent this from occurring
    Vitamin B, thiamine
  68. Which vitamin do they give at birth
    vitamin k
  69. What patient education is needed when taking Xenical?   Why is it given
    Given for weight loss, avoid fatty foods, less than 30% fat
  70. Why is both Vitamin C and zinc supplements ordered
    wound healing
  71. What is methynatrexone (Relister) given
    terminally ill patients, for constipation
  72. When a patient is started on a new drug what type of dosing is given
  73. What class of drug is methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) & what is it prescribed for and what important baseline information about the child is necessary before starting this drug
    Class II, ADHD, wight and height baseline
  74. What home going education instruction is necessary when giving antielipileptic drugs (AED)
    Don't operate any mechanical machines, avoid stressful stimulants, regular consistent dosage
  75. What are the therapeutic levels for phenytoin (Dilantin)
    15 to 40 mcg, barbituate
  76. What patient education is needed when taking phenytoin (Dilantin)
    Good dental care for teeth and gums
  77. What type of anesthesia would you do for removal of an object in your hand, wrist, or foot
    local anesthesia or block
  78. What is the benefit of combining carbidopa-levodopa (Sinemet) for Parkinson's disease
    Carbadopa breaks down allowing more levadopa, renal side effects
  79. What extrapyramidal symptoms will you monitor for when taking haloperidol (Haldol) for at least 3 months
    Tremors and muscle twitching
  80. When an order of antacids containing magnesium is obtained, what disease of a patients health history is important to know
  81. What drug is ordered for a patient on antibiotics (taking for 2 weeks) and has developed persistent diarrhea
  82. What is Ambien used for
    Sleep deprived
  83. What is Phenobarbital used for
    • Treat or prevent seizures,
    • short term to treat insomnia
    • sedative before surgery
  84. What is the class & use of Flexeril
    Muscle relaxant, sore or injured muscles
  85. What is Valium given for
    • alcohol withdrawal syndrome
    • Sedative for anxiety
    • seizure
    • skeletal muscle spasm
  86. What is the wearing off phenomenon
    medication begin to lose effectiveness to parkinson's
  87. What is gabapen (Neurontin) used for
  88. What is Lotornex alosetron given for
    IBS, severe diarrhea predominant
  89. When a patient taking Lotronex alosetron develops constipation, what should you tell him to do
    Stop taking and call doctor
  90. What are the s/s of fluid overload
    • Edema (swelling in the feet, ankles or lower legs)
    • Ascites (swelling in the abdomen)
    • Rapid increase in body weight due to fluid buildupTiredness
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Coughing and/or trouble breathing at night (especially when lying flat)
    • 20 to 40 lbs in week caused by renal/heart failure