Pathophys Book Stuff
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What is a disease? (ch 1)
An acute or chronic illness that one acquires or is born with that causes physiological dysfunction in one or more body system.
What are etiologic factors? (ch 1)
The causes of disease
What are congenital conditions? (ch 1)
factors that were present at birth (although may not be evident until later in life or may never manifest)
What are acquired defects? (ch 1)
Caused by events that occur after birth
What are some acquired defects? (ch 1)
- exposure to infectious agents
- inadequate nutrition
- lack of oxygen
- inapropriate immune responses
How many genes are in the human genome? (ch 1)
While _____ describes what sets disease process in motion, ______ explains how the disease process evolves. (ch 1)
What is pathogenesis? (ch 1)
The sequence of cellular and tissue events that take place from the time of initial contact with an etiologic agent until the ultimate expression of a disease.
What is morphology? (ch 1)
The fundamental structure or form of cells or tissues.
What is histology? (ch 1)
The study of cells and extracellular matrix of body tissues.
________ sections play an important role in the diagnosis of many types of cancer. (ch 1)
What is a lesion? (ch 1)
A pathologic or traumatic discontinuity of a body organ or tissue.
Signs and symptoms are terms that describe what? (ch 1)
The structural and functional changes that accompany a disease.
A ______ is subjective complaint that is noted by the person with a disorder; a ____ is a manifestation that is noted by an observer. (ch 1)
What are some examples of signs (of a disease)? (ch 1)
- changes in pupil size
What are some examples of symptoms? (ch 1)
- difficulty breathing
What is a syndrome? (ch 1)
A compilation of signs & symptoms that are characteristic of a specific disease state.
What are sequelae? (ch 1)
Lesions or impairments that follow or are caused by a disease. (p. 5)
What is a diagnosis? (ch 1)
The designation as to the nature or cause of a health problem.
What are the 3 courses of a disease? (ch 1)
acute, subacute, chronic
During the ______ stage, the disease is not clinically evident but is destined to progress to clinical disease. (ch 1)
What is epidemiology? (ch 1)
the study of disease occurrence in human populations.
What type of person is more concerned with whether smoking itself is related to cardiovascular disease and whether the risk of heart disease decreases when smoking ceases? (ch 1)
Who would be concerned about the causative agent in cigarette smoke and the pathway by which it contributes to heart disease? (ch 1)
a biomedical researcher
_______ are used to determine how a disease is spread, how to control it, how to prevent it, and how to eliminate it. (ch 1)
______ disease is not clinically apparent and is not destined to become clinically apparent. (ch 1)
What is morbidity? (ch 1)
The effects an illness has on a person's life.
These hormone produces a decrease in insulin release and an increase in glucagon release. (ch 9, p. 206)
Catecholamines (NE, epi)
These hormones cause an increase in heart rate, cardiac contractility, and vascular smooth muscle contraction; relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle. (p. 206)
Catecholamines (NE, epi)
This hormone stimulates ACTH release from the anterior pituitary and increased activity of LC neurons. (206)
Hormone that stimulates the synthesis and release of cortisol. (206)
Hormones that potentiate the actions of epi and glucagon inhibit the release and/or actions of the reproductive hormones and TSH; produce a decrease in immune cells and inflammatory mediators (206)
Hormones that increase sodium absorption by the kidney. (206)
mineralocorticoids (ex = aldosterone)
Hormone that increases water absorption by the kidney; produces vasoconsriction of blood vessels; and stimulates the release of ACTH. (206)
What is the locus caeruleus? (206)
An area of the brain stem that is densely populated with neurons that produce NE and is thought to be the central integrating site for the ANS response to stressful stimuli.
The LC-NE system has afferent pathways to what parts of the body? (206-207)
- limbic system
- cerebral cortex
Stress is a state manifested by symptoms that arise from the coordinated activation of the ________ and ______ systems. (209)
The stress response involves the activation of which physiologic systems that work in a coordinated fashion to protect the body against damage from intense demands?
- sympathetic nervous system
- HPA axis (hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal)
- immune system
The activation and control of the stress response are mediated by the combined efforts of what two systems?
nervous & endocrine
What is pathophysiology (ppt)?
Study of how normal body fxns are altered by disease (how things go wrong)
Rapid onset, inattention, clouding of consciousness, fluctuation. (ppt)
Delirium is a common clinical syndrome characterized by what?
inattention; acute cognitive function
Gradual onset, intellectual impairment, memory disturbance, personality/mood change, no conscious clouding.
What are the physical manifestations that can result from "stressors" according to Selye?
- enlargement of adrenal cortex
- atrophy of thymus gland and other lymphoid structures
- development of bleeding ulcers of stomach and duodenal lining
What is the triad of responses to stress (Seyle)?
General Adaptation Syndrom (GAS)
Which stage of GAS: generalized stimulation of sympathetic NS and HPA axis resulting in release of catecholamines and cortisol "fight or flight"?
In which stage of GAS does the body select the most effective and economic channel of defense?
Resistance or adaptation stage
New research shows influences of what to override the physiologic responses?
psychological, social, and emotional interpretations of stress
What response is the fastest reaction to stress?
In response to stress, the adrenal medulla dumps ______, ______, and small amounts of ______ after stimulation by the sympathetic system.
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