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soothing substance: emollients
- fatty or oily substancces applied to soothe the skin or mucous membranes.
- petrolatum, rosewater oinment, lanolin
soothing substance: demulcents
protective agents used primarily to alleviate irritation, particularly of mucous membranes and abraded tissue.
- precipitate protein but ordinarily do not penetrate beyond cell surfaces, so the cell remains viable.
- salts of aluminum, zinc, alcohols
- produce irritation:
- counter irritants-used to irritate in broken skin to relieve deep pain in muscles joints and bruises
- rubefacients-produce local vasodilation,redness, and a feeling of warmth
- vesicants-cause strong irritation; blisters may be produced if used in high concentration or long periods.
- cause sloughing of hardened epithelium. used to cauterize ulcers and to destroy excess tissue such as calluses and warts.
- benzoic and salicylic acids, resorinol, lactic acid
- substances that cause a loss of sensation. applied directly or injected
- benzocaine - throat lozenges and topical preparations