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What is an infection?
The entry of an infectious agent; a microorganism that multiplies and causes tissue damage.
What practice is essential to prevent cross contamination?
proper hand hygiene
What are pathogens?
Microorganisms capable of causing disease
Non pathogenic organisms that are prevalent on and in the body are called?
Some pathogenic microorganisms produce harmful toxins others release ________?
Endotoxins are responsible for symptoms seen in?
- Escherichia Coli
Single cell organisms lacking a nucleus that reproduce from every few minutes up to several weeks?
Bacteria that needs oxygen to grow?
How are bacteria classified?
- Need for oxygen
- Gram-staining properties
Bacteria that grows only when oxygen is not present?
Laboratory technique used for classifying the bacteria's outer cell surface?
Many gram-negative bacteria are more dangerous than gram-positive bacteria because?
- Many gram-negative bacteria may produce an endotoxin that can cause hemorrhagic shock and severe diarrhea
- and can alter resistance to other bacterial infection
Classification of bacteria according to their shape?
3 main groups of bacteria morphology?
- Cocci (round)
- Bacilli (rod)
- Spirochetes (spiral)
4 common multi-drug resistant organisms?
- MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
- VRE (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus)
- ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing pneumonia (E.Coli)
- C.diff (Clostridium difficile)
Protein particles that lack nucleic acids and are not inactivated by usual methods for destroying bacteria and viruses?
Can grow and replicate only in a living cell?
One-celled microscopic organisms belonging to the animal kingdom?
Small round or rod shaped microorganisms that are transmitted by bite?
Tiny primitive organisms of the plant kingdom that do not contain chlorophyll?
Fungi reproduce by?
Fungal infections in humans are called?
Parasitic worms or flukes belonging to the animal kingdom?
Process of infection, Chain links?
- Causative Agent
- Portal of Exit
- Mode of Transfer
- Portal of Entry
- Susceptible Host
Explain causative agent?
Any microorganism or biologic agent capable of causing disease
The most effective way of destroying viruses and all other kinds of microorganisms is?
- High temperature for a specified time
- Steam 250 for 20-30 min
- Dry 350 for 90min-3 hrs
The four stages of infection?
First line of defense?
Second line of defense?
- Bodies ability to destroy pathogens.
- Inflammatory response
Third line of defense?
Describe PPE in order?
- Protective eyewear
- Head cover
How are Pathogens killed or inactivated?
- or use of sanitizing agents
Infection prevention and control rely on?
- Medical asepsis
- Surgical asepsis
- Standard precautions
- Transmission- Based precautions
Patients with Highest risk of HAIs?
- Surgical incisions with or without drains
- Artificial airways
- Indwelling urinary catheters
- IV lines esp. Central Venous and Arterial lines
- Implanted prosthetic devices
- Repeated injections or Venipunctures
- Compromised immune system
Airborne infection isolation precautions?
- Negative pressure room with door closed
- N95 Mask must be worn
- Patient must wear N95 if leaving room
Examples of Airborne diseases?
- Measles (rubella)
- Varicella (including disseminated zoster)
- Pulminary tuberculosis
- Staff and visitor must wear surgical mask to enter.
- (3 feet)
Examples of droplet illness?
- Scarlet Fever
- Strep Throat
Examples of Contact precautions
- Do not share equipment from patient to patient
- Nurse and Visitors wear Gloves and Gown
- Double glove when providing care to infected wound
- Wear mask,face shield,Hair and shoe covers when potential for splash
Contact patient must ________ to leave room?
- Isolation gown and gloves
- Wound site of infection should be covered well waterproof pad if possible