Chapter 16&17

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Author:
epierce
ID:
255974
Filename:
Chapter 16&17
Updated:
2014-01-12 14:31:18
Tags:
Infection Prevention Control Asepsis
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PNSG
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study guide
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  1. What is an infection?
    The entry of an infectious agent; a microorganism that multiplies and causes tissue damage.
  2. What practice is essential to prevent cross contamination?
    proper hand hygiene
  3. What are pathogens?
    Microorganisms capable of causing disease
  4. Non pathogenic organisms that are prevalent on and in the body are called?
    Normal Flora
  5. Some pathogenic microorganisms produce harmful toxins others release ________?
    Endotoxins
  6. Endotoxins are responsible for symptoms seen in?
    • Botulism
    • Tetanus
    • Diphtheria
    • Escherichia Coli
  7. Single cell organisms lacking a nucleus that reproduce from every few minutes up to several weeks?
    Bacteria
  8. Bacteria that needs oxygen to grow?
    Aerobic
  9. How are bacteria classified?
    • Need for oxygen
    • Shape
    • Gram-staining properties
  10. Bacteria that grows only when oxygen is not present?
    Anaerobic
  11. Laboratory technique used for classifying the bacteria's outer cell surface?
    Gram staining
  12. Many gram-negative bacteria are more dangerous than gram-positive bacteria because?
    • Many gram-negative bacteria may produce an endotoxin that can cause hemorrhagic shock and severe diarrhea¬†
    • and can alter resistance to other bacterial infection
  13. Classification of bacteria according to their shape?
    Morphology
  14. 3 main groups of bacteria morphology?
    • Cocci (round)
    • Bacilli (rod)
    • Spirochetes (spiral)
  15. 4 common multi-drug resistant organisms?
    • MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
    • VRE (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus)
    • ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing pneumonia (E.Coli)
    • C.diff (Clostridium difficile)
  16. Protein particles that lack nucleic acids and are not inactivated by usual methods for destroying bacteria and viruses?
    Prions
  17. Can grow and replicate only in a living cell?
    Viruses
  18. One-celled microscopic organisms belonging to the animal kingdom?
    Protozoa
  19. Small round or rod shaped microorganisms that are transmitted by bite?
    Rickettsia
  20. Tiny primitive organisms of the plant kingdom that do not contain chlorophyll?
    Fungi
  21. Fungi reproduce by?
    Spores
  22. Fungal infections in humans are called?
    Mycoses
  23. Parasitic worms or flukes belonging to the animal kingdom?
    Helminths
  24. Process of infection, Chain links?
    • Causative Agent
    • Reservoir
    • Portal of Exit
    • Mode of Transfer
    • Portal of Entry
    • Susceptible Host
  25. Explain causative agent?
    Any microorganism or biologic agent capable of causing disease
  26. The most effective way of destroying viruses and all other kinds of microorganisms is?
    • High temperature for a specified time
    • Steam 250 for 20-30 min
    • Dry 350 for 90min-3 hrs
  27. The four stages of infection?
    • Incubation
    • Prodrome
    • Illness
    • Convalescence
  28. First line of defense?
    Intact skin
  29. Second line of defense?
    • Bodies ability to destroy pathogens.
    • Inflammatory response
  30. Third line of defense?
    Immune response
  31. Describe PPE in order?
    • Gown
    • Mask
    • Protective eyewear
    • Head cover
    • Gloves
  32. How are Pathogens killed or inactivated?
    • Disinfection
    • Sterilization
    • or use of sanitizing agents
  33. Infection prevention and control rely on?
    • Medical asepsis
    • Surgical asepsis
    • Standard precautions
    • Transmission- Based precautions
  34. Patients with Highest risk of HAIs?
    • Surgical incisions with or without drains
    • Artificial airways
    • Indwelling urinary catheters
    • IV lines esp. Central Venous and Arterial lines
    • Implanted prosthetic devices
    • Repeated injections or Venipunctures
    • Compromised immune system
  35. Airborne infection isolation precautions?
    • Negative pressure room with door closed
    • N95 Mask must be worn
    • Patient must wear N95 if leaving room
  36. Examples of Airborne diseases?
    • Measles (rubella)
    • Varicella (including disseminated zoster)
    • Pulminary tuberculosis
  37. Droplet Precautions
    • Staff and visitor must wear surgical mask to enter.
    • (3 feet)
  38. Examples of droplet illness?
    • Scarlet Fever
    • Flu
    • Strep Throat
    • Rubella
    • Mumps
    • Meningitis
  39. Examples of Contact precautions
    • Do not share equipment from patient to patient¬†
    • Nurse and Visitors wear Gloves and Gown
    • Double glove when providing care to infected wound
    • Wear mask,face shield,Hair and shoe covers when potential for splash
  40. Contact patient must ________ to leave room?
    • Isolation gown and gloves
    • Wound site of infection should be covered well waterproof pad if possible
  41. Contact examples
    • C.diff
    • Shigella
    • Impetigo
    • Scabies
    • Lice
    • Conjunctivitis

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