Chapter 21 Cardiovascular System Function Assessment and Therapeutic Measures

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DirtyRed
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Chapter 21 Cardiovascular System Function Assessment and Therapeutic Measures
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2014-01-12 13:38:17
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Med Surg Chapter 21 Nursing Medical
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chapter 21
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  1. Aldersterone?
    Aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex, is important for cardiac function because it helps regulate blood levels of sodium and potassium, both of which are needed for the electrical activity of the myocardium.
  2. Epinephrine
    The hormone epinephrine, secreted by the adrenal medulla in stressful situations, is sympathomimetic in that it increases the heart rate and force of contraction and it dilates the coronary vessels. This in turn increases cardiac output and systolic blood pressure.
  3. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
    ANP increases the excretion of sodium by the kidneys, by inhibiting secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex.
  4. When is ANP secreted?
    when a higher blood pressure or greater blood volume stretches the walls of the atria
  5. Carries blood from the heart to the capillaries ?
    Arteries and arterioles
  6. What prevents rupture of the arteries?
    Arteries carry blood under high pressure, and the outer layer of fibrous connective tissue prevents rupture of the arteries.
  7. Carries blood from capillaries to the heart?
    Veins and Venules. Their walls are relatively thin because they have less smooth muscle than arteries. (Veins do not have as important a role in the maintenance of BP as arteries.)
  8. Carry blood from arterioles to venules and form extensive networks in most tissues.
    Capillaries
  9. What is the blood pressure in the capillaries?
    30-35 mm HG at the arterial end of the network, and it drops to about 15 mm Hg at the venous end.
  10. What is blood pressure?
    The force of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels and is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
  11. Normal range of BP?
    systemic arterial pressure is less than 120/80 mm Hg
  12. Peripheral resistance?
    The arterioles are usually in a state of slight constriction that helps to maintain normal blood pressure, especial diastolic pressure. It is regulated by the vasomotor center in the medulla, which generates impulses along sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves to these vessels' smooth muscle.
  13. What factors affect BP?
    If heart rate and force increase, blood pressure increases within limits. If the heart is beating very fast, the ventricles are not filled before they contract, cardiac output decreases, and blood pressure drops.
  14. Venous return depends on ?
    constriction of the veins to reduce pooling, the skeletal muscle pumping to squeeze the deep veins of the legs, and the diaphragm's downward pressure during inhalation to compress the abdominal veins as the thoracic veins are decompressed.
  15. Elasticity contributes to?
    Elasticity of the large arteries also contributes to normal bp. when the left ventricle contracts, the blood stretches the elastic walls of the large arteries, which absorb some of the force.
  16. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism
    If blood flow through the kidneys decreases, renal filtration decreases and urinary output decreases to preserve blood volume. Decreased blood pressure stimulates the kidneys to secrete renin, which initiates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism.
  17. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism
    Renin splits the plasma protein angiotensinogen (from the liver) to form angiotensin I, which is changed to angiotensin II by a converting enzyme found primarily in lung tissue.
  18. What does Angiotensin II cause?
    arteriole vasoconstriction and stimulates secretion of aldosterone, both of which raise blood pressure.
  19. How does Aldosterone increase bp and blood volume?
    Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, increases the reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys. Water follows the sodium back to the blood; this increases blood volume and blood pressure.
  20. Two pathways of circulation?
    pulmonary and systemic
  21. Pulmonary circulation?
    Pulmonary circulation begins at the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary artery.

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