chap 53-56

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chap 53-56
2014-01-12 11:39:29
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  1. universal forceps
    grasping teeth

    designed allow the surgeon to use same instrument for left and right of same arch
  2. surgical curette
    resemble large spoon excavator

    dbl ended scoop shaped instrument with sharp edges for scraping motion
  3. rongeur
    trim alveolar bone

    similar in size of forceps

    resembles finger nail clippers
  4. bone files
    always follow the rongeur

    smooth rough margins of the alveolus after extraction
  5. scapel
    surgical knife used to make a precise incision into soft tissue with least amount of trauma to tissue
  6. hemostat

    used to grasp and hold things
  7. needle holder
    similar to hemostat surgeon. to grasp a suture needle
  8. oral maxillofacial surgery
    diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases, injuries, and defects effecting the heart and soft tissue of the head and neck.
  9. indication for oral and maxillofacial surgery
    • extraction of decay teeth that cannot be restored.
    • removal of impacted teeth.
    • extract of non-vital teeth.
    • removal for ortho.
    • cysts and tumors.
    • root fragments
    • biposys
    • reconstructed surgery
    • salivary gland surgery
  10. oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMFS)
    • referred to as an oral surgeon
    • dentist who has received 4 to 6 additional years of postgraduate training in hospital
  11. surgical assistant knowledge and skills
    • patient assessment and monitoring (medical history)
    • use of specialized instruments
    • surgical asepsis (sterilize packaging)
    • surgical procedures
    • pain control techniques (monitoring anesthesia)
  12. surgical setting
    • done in the private dental office
    • the hospital or outpatient surgical suite
  13. periosteal elevator
    • wax spatula
    • to reflect (separate)
    • retract the periosteum from the surface of the bone
    • always on a basic setup
    • used before the forceps to detach the gingival tissues from around the cervix of the tooth
    • always used after BP (bard parker)???
  14. root tip pick universal/curve
    extract root tips
  15. straight elevator 301
    small half round elevator universal
    • straight elevator
    • used to seperate tooth from periodontal ligament and ease retraction
  16. universal forceps
    • grasping teeth
    • design to allow the surgeon to use the same instrument for the left and right arch
  17. surgical currette
    • resembles a large spoon excavator
    • double end, scoop-sharpened instrument with sharp edges for scraping motion
    • used following after the extraction to scrape the interior of the socket, to remove disease tissue
  18. rongeurs
    • used to trim alveolar bone
    • resembles finger nail clipper
  19. bone file
    • always follows the rongeurs
    • used to smooth rough margins of the alveolar bone
  20. scalpel
    • surgical knife used to make a precise incision into soft tissue with least amount of trauma to the tissue
    • discard into the sharp containers
  21. hemostat
    • used to grasp soft tissue bone and tooth fragment
    • grasping and holding
  22. needle holder
    • similar to hemostat
    • to grasp a suture needle
  23. surgical scissors
    • trims soft tissue
    • handles range in length from 3 1/2 to 6 1/4 in
  24. suture scissors
    used to cut suture material
  25. retractors
    hold or retract tissue during surgery
  26. mouth props or bite block
    patient rests and relax muscle during surgery
  27. chisel
    • to remove or reshape bone
    • single design to remove bone
    • bi-bevel type to split teeth
  28. mallet
    • source of pressure
    • used on the chisel handle
  29. what does the periosteel elevator reflect and retract?
  30. what number is given to the universal forcep?
  31. what instrument resembles a spoon excavator?
    surgical currette
  32. what surgical instrument is used to trim and shape bone?
  33. what is the difference between a hemostat and a needle holder?
    • hemostat is used to grasp and hold things
    • needle hold is used to grab a suture needle
  34. when the chisel is placed in the tray setup, what additional surgical instrument must be set out?
  35. what equipment is used to perform surgical scrub?
    • orange stick
    • antimicrobial soap
    • scrub brush
  36. the term donning means?
    putting on
  37. rotary instruments
    • used to remove bone or divide tooth
    • handpiece and bur
    • sterile saline water is required for cooling
    • no air
  38. chain of asepsis requires
    instrument, surgical drapes, and gloves hands of the surgical team sterile
  39. sterile field
    prepared to hold surgical instrument and accessories that will be used during surgery
  40. surgical scrub
    type of handwash used to lessen chance of infection
  41. advance preparation surgical assistant role
    • check patient records and x rays
    • consent form signed and available
    • info request from patients physician must be received
    • check for lab cases
    • ensure surgical preparation has been prepared and sterilized
    • provide preoperative instructions for taking any pre meds and eating, drinking after midnight
  42. treatment room preparation
    • prepare room with barriers
    • keep instruments in sterile wraps until ready for use
    • if it is open, place a sterile towel over the tray
    • appropriate pain control meds ready for administration
    • post operative instructions
  43. patient preparation
    • update medical history and lab reports
    • check patient for prescribed medication
    • place radiograph on view box
    • take vital signs
    • sit and drape the patient
    • adjust the chair to comfortable position
  44. forceps extraction
    • described as simple extractions
    • perform on a tooth that is fully erupted and has a solid intact crown which is grasped firmly with forceps
    • do not require placement of suture
  45. multiple exrtraction
    when a patient will be recieving a partial or a full denture or implants.
  46. alveoplasty
    when several teeth have been extracted within the same quadrant, the alveoplasty crest remains intact and the surgeon must perform an alveoplasty to conture and smooth the effected area.
  47. complex extraction
    • this term is used when the conditons requires additional skills, knowledge and instrumentation to removea tooth
    • ex: extraction of an impacted tooth
  48. impacted tooth
    tooth that has not been errupted
  49. soft tissue impaction
    tooth is located under the gingival tissue
  50. hard tissue impaction
    tooth is partially or totally  covered by tissue and bone
  51. biopsy
    process by which tissue is removed and examined to distinguish malignancies from nonmalignant cancers in the oral cavity
  52. three types of biopsys
    INCISIONAL BIOPSY:cosmetic or functional impire bisurgery (chew/tongue)

    EXCISIONAL BIOPSY: removal of the entire lesion plus some adjacent tissue

    • EXFOLIATIVE BIOPSY: nonsurgical technique
    • requires no anesthesia
  53. what procedure is commonly performed by the surgeon directly after removal of multiple teeth adjacent to one another?
  54. which type of impaction is when a tooth is located directly under the gingival tissue?
    soft tissue impaction
  55. which type of biopsy is completed when a surface lesion is scraped to attain cells?
    exfoliative biopsy
  56. sutures
    • stitching
    • if a scapel has been used,sutures are used to control bleeding and promote healing
  57. what are three types of non-absorbable suture materials?
    • silk: silk strength and easy application
    • polyster fiber: one of the strongest sutures
    • nylon:strength and elasticity
    • ¬†non-absorbable sutures are usually removed 5 to 7 days after surgery
  58. absorbable suture materials
    • they dissolve and become absorbed by the body
    • plain catgut: provides faster healing for mucus membrane and subcutaneous tissues.
    • chromic catgut:provides a slower healing process allowing the internal tissue to heal first
    • poly glactin 910 vicryl: synthetic absorbable material
  59. alveolitis
    • failure of the healing process
    • also known as a dry socket
    • usually occurs 2 to 3 days after removal
    • the socket is irrigated with warm saline solution