1775-1825

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1775-1825
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APUSH 1775-1825
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  1. Monroe Doctrine
    Introduced on December 2, 1823-President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility.-After emerging from the Revolutionary War, the fledgling United States could not afford another major conflict with a European country. Basically all wars come down to financial backing. The US did not have the money to engage in another conflict with the more financially stable countries of Europe. Therefore James Monroe made a statement that the US would stay out of all conflicts in the Eastern Hemisphere and expected that European countries were to stay out of all of the affairs within the Western Hemisphere-Had the Monroe Doctrine not been adopted, Latin American as well as world history would have been very different from what it is now. The situation may have been similar to Africa in that Latin America would have been carved up by the European powers into small holdings causing many short and long term results. For example, Spanish would not be the main language spoken; there would also be German, French, English, and others. The current borders would also be very different. They would be divided according to the colonies that had been staked out. In conclusion, the Monroe Doctrine had effects on many countries when it was formed, but the greatest consequences took part in Latin America because this doctrine allowed it to develop without many foreign influences as the US played more of a protector role.-The tomato is proven to be non-poisonous on June 28th 1820.Europe trying to wrape their brain's around this exciting development in horticulture does not think about calling Monroe's bluff on the Monroe Doctrine!!! (probably has more to do with the fact that they were recovering from the Napoleonic wars)
  2. Embargo Act of 1807
    Passed by Jefferson, this act banned trade with all nations.It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
  3. Louisana Purchase
    1803: The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. -Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. -Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. -The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase. (this is kind of ironic since he was against loose construction)
  4. Tecumseh
    Shawnee leader who attempted to organize an indian confederacy to prevent the loss of additional territory to American settlers. -He became an ally of the British in War of 1812 -died in battle.
  5. Jay's Treaty
    1794: It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain.- It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River.- It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. -It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.- This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney's Treaty with the Spanish.
  6. Whiskey Rebellion
    A protest caused by tax on liquor- it tested the will of the government- Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy- In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion.-This is a good contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
  7. Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion
    1800: "First Major Slave Rebellion" -Out of black revival meetings in Virginia arose an elaborate plan in 1800 to launch a large scale revolt devised by a literate black slave (who was the brother of a black preacher) that lived in the Richmond area. Fifty armed slaves tried to seize a key road to Richmond, slave informers warned white authorities. Governor Monroe quickly crushed the rebellion. The uprising greatly alarmed white Americans and resulted in a tightening of controls
  8. Anapolis Convention
    Held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation.- attended by five states A precursor to the Constitutional Convention of 1787,and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention, -The attendees were from form New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia .-They met to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, to design a U.S. currency standard, and to find a way to repay the federal government's debts to Revolutionary War veterans. -Little was accomplished, except for the delegates to recommend that a further convention be held to discuss changes to the form of the federal government; the idea was endorsed by the Confederation Congress in February, 1878, which called for another convention to be held in May that year in Philadelphia.
  9. Orders in Council
    (1807) British laws, approved by the Privy Council, in response to Napolean's Continental System. They permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods. The orders of November and December 1807 declared a blockade of any harbour that excluded British commerce. The USA protested strongly and its resentment was one of the causes of the War of 1812.
  10. Hartford Convention
    (1814) A convention in which Federalists proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They proposed a 2/3 vote to impose embargo, admit new states, or declare war in addition to abolishing the 3/5 compromise and limiting presidents to one term. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored.The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
  11. American Colonization Society
    Abolitionist organization founded in 1817 with the purpose of transporting blacks back to Africa, forming the Republic of Liberia in 1822.
  12. Republicanism/Democracy
    philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
  13. Interchanagable Parts
    Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government., (significant in the early period of the first industrial revolution was the emphasis of producing parts that were the same. this idea made mass production possible.)
  14. Henery Clay
    "The Great Compromiser" An influential Whig senator from Kentucky and a "War Hawk" who supported the 1816 Second National Bank, helped pass the Missouri Compromise through the House of Representatives in 1820, Amended the Compromise of 1850, and supported the American Colonization Society,
  15. Washington's Farewell Address
    Washington emphasized both staying out of foreign involvement, especially in regard to conflicts and warned against the dangers of political parties and stressed national unity.
  16. Connecticut (Great) Compromise
    A combination of the Virginia and New Jersey Plans that provided for separation of powers and a bicameral legislature. The upper house (Senate) would provide equal representation for all states. The lower House of Representatives would base representation on population. Proposed by cobbler Roger Sherman at the Consitutional Convention of 1787.
  17. Barbary Pirates
    Pirates who attacked American ships along the Barbary Coast of northern Africa during the first few years of the 19th Century. They charged the U.S. tribute to ensure safe passage. The Jefferson fought back with force figuring a cessation of the tribute payments would be cheaper than a war. The Navy won at Tripoli in 1805 and the tribute payments were terminated.
  18. Undeclared Naval War
    The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought mostly at sea between the United States and French Republic from 1798 to 1800. TIt was caused by the seizing of American ships trading with Britain by France which required the rebirth of the United States Navy to protect the expanding American merchant shipping. It would contribute to the War of 1812.
  19. Treaty of Alliance 1778
    (1778) Defensive alliance in which the US and France agreed to aid each other into the indefinite future in the event of British attack; neither country would make amends with Britain until the independence of the Thirteen Colonies was recognized, neither the Americans nor the French would conclude treaties with other nations unless diplomats from both countries were present during negotiations.
  20. Treaty of Paris 1783
    While there have been many Treaties of Paris throughout history. The most important in American History is the treaty signed in September 1783 and ratified by Congress in January 1784, which ended the Revolutionary War and granted the United States its independence. It further granted the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River. While generally accepted, the Treaty of Paris opened the door to future legislative and economic disputes.
  21. Republican Motherhood
    After the election of 1800 Jeffersonian promoted this as the ideal for women to raise their children with idealism of the American nation.
  22. Corrupt Bargian
    In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then controversially made Clay his Secretary of State.
  23. Loose Interperuation
    Broad view of constitution, broad interpretation of elastic clause, liberal, democrat, cooperative federalism, warren court, judicial activism.
  24. Strict
    a narrow interpretation of the constitution's provisions, in particular those granting powers to the Federal Government (can only exercise those powers that were intended by the Framers of the Constitution of the United States)
  25. Lewis and Clark
    Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
  26. Gibbons v Ogden
    (1824) This suit grew out of an attempt of New York to grant to a private concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between New York and New Jersey. Marshall, not surprisingly, stated that the Constitution declared that Congress alone had the control of interstate commerce. This struck another blow at states' rights while increasing the power of the federal government.
  27. Treaty of Ghent
    (1814) - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
  28. Land Ordiance of 1785
    Provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt. The area was to be surveyed before the sale and settlement thus avoiding lawsuits. This was an ingenious plan by the government in a way to make up war debt while simultaneously preventing any aggravation from a group of citizens who weren't keen on paying taxes. It also laid the foundation for the westward expansion without too much governmental intervention.
  29. Critical Period
    Term used by historians to describe the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
  30. XYZ Affair
    (1798) An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand. US refused to concur.
  31. War Hawks
    Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand. (mostly the younger generation).
  32. Cottion Gin
    Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields.
  33. Articles of Confederation
    Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn't govern the country's finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789.
  34. Three-Fifths Compromise
    During the framing of the Constitution, Southern delegates argued that slaves should count toward representative seats, while the delegates of Northern states argued that to count slaves as members of the population would grant an unfair advantage to the Southern states in Congress. The result of this debate was the adoption of the three-fifths clause, which allowed three-fifths of all slaves to be counted as people.
  35. Deism
    The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
  36. Revolution of 1800
    Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
  37. Full Funding/Assumption
    The term refers to Alexander Hamilton's plan to refinance the national debt at par; that is, exchange new government securities for old government securities at their face value despite the fact that many persons holding these securities had purchased them from their original holder for a fraction of their face value.-this caused a growth in the treasury department and eventually lead to the Bank of the United States.
  38. Virgina Plan
    The Virginia Plan was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In opposition, the small states proposed the New Jersey Plan. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise.
  39. New Jersey Plan
    The New Jersey Plan was presented at the Constitutional Convention as an alternative to the Virginia Plan. The New Jersey Plan favored small states in that it proposed a unicameral Congress with equal representation for each state.
  40. Samuel Slater
    He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
  41. Federalist/First American Party System
    Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.
  42. Benjamin Banneker
    African-American scientist who taught himself calculus and trigonometry. He also helped design the capitol in Washington D.C.
  43. Haitian Rebellion
    A period of brutal conflict in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, leading to the elimination of slavery and the establishment of Haiti as the first republic ruled by people of African ancestry (1791 - 1804) Toissant L'Ouverture - prominent leader of the rebellion.
  44. Marbury v Madison
    (1803) The case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
  45. Bank of the United States
    Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day. Ended in 1816.
  46. Yeomen Farmers
    A farmer who farms his own lands. They did not own slaves nor did they labor on other people's farms or Southern plantations. (majority of Southern farmers).
  47. Virgina-Kentucky Resolutions
    (1798) reaction against the Sedition Act; written by Madison for Virginia and Jefferson for Kentucky, they stated that when the national government exceeded its powers under the Constitution, the states had the right to nullify the law. Essentially, the resolutions held that the Constitution was a compact among the states and they were its final arbiter.
  48. Shay's Rebellion
    (1786-1787)Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
  49. Northwest Ordiance
    The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.
  50. Lowell Mill Girls
    This system was used in the Mid-Atlantic region. It recruited the young daughters of farmers to come to the textile mills and work. Many of the women would save their wages and return home to marry. Others would marry locally. Usually the case was that the women would quit the jobs and take up domestic roles. Ended with the inundation of Irish immigrants in 1840.
  51. Erie Canal
    (1817-1825) A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
  52. Impressment
    British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
  53. Declartation of Independece
    Formally approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776. it established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britian. (Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document) It has been a source of inspiration to countless revolutionary movements against arbitrary authority. The document sharply separated Loyalists from Patriots and helped to start the American Revolution by allowing England to hear of the colonists disagreements with British authority.
  54. Missouri Compromise
    (1820) Reconciled the discord over Missouri joining the Union as a slave state. Its addititon to the Union would upset the balance between slave and free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a 36 30' line across the southern border of Missouri which declared except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
  55. Adam-Onis Treaty
    (1819) Settled land dispute between Spain and the United States as a result of tensions brought on by weakening Spanish power in the New World. U.S. gained Florida in exchange for $5 million and renounced any claims on Texas and settled boundaries between two countries to the Pacific Ocean.
  56. American System
    Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
  57. Bill of Rights
    Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
  58. Judical Review
    The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional. Created in the Marbury v Madison review.
  59. Era of Good Feelings
    (1816-1824) A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
  60. Citizen Genet
    (1793) French diplomat who tried to draw the United States into the war between France and England (1763-1834).
  61. Alien & Sedetion Act
    (1798)These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
  62. Pickney's Treaty
    (1795)Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
  63. National Republicans
    part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.

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