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2014-01-12 03:30:11

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    • author "me"
    • tags "Chapter 2"
    • folders ""
    • description ""
    • fileName "Physiology"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Matter
    • Anything that occupies space and has mass and weight
  1. Energy
    The ability to do work or put matter into motion
  2. Kinetic energy
    The constant movement of the tiniest particles of matter
  3. Potential energy
    Inactive or stored energy
  4. Chemical energy
    Stored in the bonds of chemical substances
  5. Electrical energy
    Results from the movement of charged particles
  6. mechanical energy
    Energy directly involved in moving matter
  7. Radiant energy
    Travels in waves. it is the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum which includes xrays, infrared radiation, visible light, radio and ultraviolet waves
  8. Elements
    Unique substance is that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods
  9. Periodic table
    And I'd shake checkerboard that appears in chemistry class rooms around the world. It is a complete listing of the elements in the universe
  10. Atomic symbol
    A1 or 2 letter symbols indicating a particular element
  11. Protons
    A subatomic particle which has a positive charge an atom
  12. Neutrons
    A subatomic particle that has a neutral charge in an atom
  13. Electrons
    A subatomic particle that has a negative charge in an atom
  14. Atomic number
    Equal to the number of protons Its atom contains
  15. Atomic mass
    The sum of protons and neutrons contained in the atom's nucleus
  16. Atomic weight
    Is equal to the atomic mass
  17. Isotopes
    Different atomic form of the same element. isotopes very and only the number of neutrons they contain
  18. Radioisotopes
    Isotope exhibit radioactive behavior
  19. Radioactivity
    The process of spontaneous decay seen instead of the heavier isotopes during which particles or energy is emitted from the atomic nucleus result in the atoms becoming more stable
  20. Molecules
    When two or more atoms combine
  21. Compound
    Substance composed of two or more different elements the atoms of which are chemically United
  22. Chemical reaction
    Process in which molecules are formed changed, or broken down
  23. Electron shells or energy levels
    The Fixx regions of space around the nucleus
  24. Valence shell
    The outermost energy level of an atom that contains electrons the electrons in the valence shell determine the bonding behavior of the atom
  25. Ionic bonds
    Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
  26. Ions
    An atom with the positive charge or negative charge
  27. Covalent bonds
    The bond involving the sharing of electrons between atoms.
  28. salt
    Ionic compound that dissociates into charged particles ( other than hydorgen or hydroxyl ions) when dissolved in water
  29. Hydrogen bonds
    Extremely weak bonds formed when a hydrogen bound to one electon-hungry nitrogen or oxygen atom is attracted by another electron-hungry atom
  30. Synthesis reaction
    Occurs when two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger more complex molecule.
  31. Decomposition reaction
    Occurs when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions.
  32. Exchange reaction
    Involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions; bonds are both made and broken
  33. Inorganic compounds
    A compound that lacks carbon; for example water
  34. Organic compound
    A compound containing carbon
  35. Electrolytes
    Substances that conduct an electrical current in solution
  36. Acid ( proton donor)
    A substance that liberates hydrogen ions when in an aqueous solution
  37. Base (proton acceptors)
    A substance that accepts hydrogen ions; protons acceptor
  38. Buffers
    A substance or substances that help to stabilize the ph of a solution
  39. Adenosine diphosphate
    a compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups, present in all living tissue. The breakage of one phosphate linkage (to form adenosine diphosphate, ADP ) provides energy for physiological processes such as muscular contraction.
  40. Carbohydrates
    Organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples include starches, sugars, and oxygen
  41. Monosaccharide
    Litteraly, one sugar, the building block of carbohydrates; examples include glucose and lactose
  42. Glucose
    The principle sugar in the blood
  43. Disaccharide
    Litterally, double sugar, examples include sucrose and lactose
  44. Dehydration synthesis
    Process in which a larger molecule is synthesized from smaller ones by removal of a water molecule at each site of blood formation
  45. Hydrolysis
    The process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles
  46. Polysaccharide
    Literally, many sugars, a polymer of linked monosaccharides, examples include starch and glycogen
  47. Lipids
    Organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples include fats and cholesterol
  48. Triglycerides (neutral fats)
    Compunds composed of fatty acids and glycerol; fats and oils
  49. Fatty acids
    Building block of fats
  50. Glycerol
    A sugar alcohol; one of the building blocks of fats
  51. Saturated
    Fatty acid chains with only single covalent. Onds between carbon atoms
  52. Unsaturated/monosaturated/polysaturated
    Fatty acids thatncontain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms
  53. Transfat
    oils that have solidified by addition of hydrogen atoms at sites of double carbon bobds
  54. Omega-3 fatty acids
    Found naturally in cold-water fish, appears to decrease the risk of heart disease and some inflammatory diseases
  55. Phospholipids
    A modified triglyceride containing phosphorus
  56. Steroid
    A specific group of chemical substances including certain horomones and cholesterol
  57. Cholesterol
    A steroid found in animal fats as well as in most body tissue; made by the liver
  58. Proteins
    A complex nitrogenous substance; the main building material of cells
  59. Amino acids
    An organic compound containing nittogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the building block of proteins
  60. Fibrous proteins/ structual proteins
    A strandlike protein that appears most often in body structures. They are very important in binding structures together and for providing strength in certain body tissue.
  61. Globular protein/ functional proteins
    A protein whose functional structure is basically spherical. Also referred to as functional protein; includes hemoglobin enzymes and some horomones
  62. Enzymes
    A substance formes by living cells that acts S a catalyst in bodily chemical reactions
  63. Catalyst
    A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product or being changed itself
  64. Nucleic acid
    Class of organic molecules that includes DNA and RNA
  65. Nuclestide
    Building block of nucleic acids
  66. DNA
    Nucleic acid found in all living cells; carries the organisms hereditary information
  67. RNA
    The nucleic acid that contains ribose; acts in protein synthesis
  68. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    Compound that is the important intracellular energy source; cellular energy