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Henry Kissinger and Carter
Shuttled between Egypt and Israel to create agreements to pull back troops post Yom Kippur War and have buffer zones patrolled by UN forces. Also shuttled to create a larger buffer zone between the two countries to instill peace.
Neutralist leader that kept Cambodia out of the Vietnam war until he was driven out by right wing nationalist Lon Nol, but was restored in 1993 as leader
Cambodian Communist party
A film that depicted how ruthless the Khmer Rogue were
Secretary of State under Carter
In 1975, The European Security conference (35 nations + US) met in Helsinki, Finland to settle remaining WW2 issues, which included recognition of new national borders drawn post war and an agreement made by all nations to respect human rights (which included the Soviet Union, who violated this agreement almost immediately within their own borders/in their satellite nations)
The second step in the SALT agreements, Carter proposed a broader plan for arms limitation and the Soviets were all "oh hell no these proposals are one sided and favor the US so yea no" and then finally they decided collectively to limit their numbers of missiles and long range bombers but then the Soviets invaded Afghanistan and Senate never passed the SALT II so yea there goes that
Panama Canal Treaties
- 1977 - two treaties
- 1. US agreed to hand over the canal to the republic of panama at noon on December 31st, 1999. Until then, the Canal would be jointly run by the US and Panama
- 2. Canal made a neutral waterway open to all shipping after 1999
Background: Jimmy Carter
Georgia Governor, born and raised in small Georgia towns, spent seven years in the navy on battleships and nuclear submarines, then returning after his father's death to run the family peanut farm. Impressed people with his simplicity, honesty, & sincerity + had nothing to do with Watergate or Vietnam
Background: Ronald Reagan
A former movie star and governor of California for two terms - the great orator. Represented the conservative side of republican party, anti-communist, criticized détente policies
By 1974 (after Nixon's failure to lower inflation second term, distracted by Watergate) inflation was at 12% and a recession began. Ford believed that govt spending made prices go up (used his veto 66 times to prevent it) but the real issue was the price of oil after the arab oil embargo
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
Created in the Budget & Impoundment act, it provided Congress with its own income & expense figures, directed by Alice Mitchell Rivlin.
Budget and Independent Act 1974
States that a president can not "impound" funds - meaning that they are not allowed to refuse to spend money that Congress has voted to use
AKA Nixon's illegal campaign activities that created a 1 million dollar program of kidnapping, wiretapping, and other "dirty tricks" to work against the democratic party and earn an easy win in the election - Rejected by attn. general Mitchell, settled on a 250,000 dollar intelligence plan - "bugging" of Democratic Officials offices (Watergate)
Background: Richard Nixon
During WW2 served in the Navy, then elected to HoR. He made his reputation on the HUAC chasing after communists (becoming nationally recognized in the Alger Hiss trial) then elected to Senate for California in 1950. VP to Eisenhower. Lost presidential race against Kennedy
Created by affirmative action, it was described as a new kind of prejudice to erase old prejudice - basically the reverse racisim
Put in place by Nixon (first president to ever use it) as an attempt to freeze the inflation that was creating a major issue for the country at the time - This meant freezing the wages for 90 days in order to freeze/slow prices
Nixon's Inflation Issue
Beginning under LBJ due to the high govt spending for Vietnam and the Great Society, Nixon had promised to end it in his campaign. However, the inflation continued, sending the country into its first recession since 1961, which caused a price rise of 14.5% in 1971. This forced Nixon to change his policies, and set wage price freeze.
Following the American diplomatic trip to China, Russia then invited Nixon for a diplomatic meeting. There, Nixon met with Brezhnev and the two began creating the SALT treaty
The "lunar module" attached to the Apollo II that detached and landed on the moon
Miller vs. California
Case in which the question arose - is pornographic material protected by the first amendment? Court ruled that obscene material is not protected by the first amendment - however, material can be regulated by state
Swann vs. Charlotte
In order to allow students to chose where they wanted to go to school rather than pulling them out of whatever school they attended and forcing integration, Charlotte created "zones" that provided equal opportunities for black and white children to integrate at their own choice. However, this did not follow the integration law - taken to court. Court ruled that a state could not prohibit racially explicit transportation or segregate schools, and Charlotte kept the zones
Griggs vs. Dukke Power Company
Another Affirmative action case concerning the workplace in which tests were given to jobseekers but minorities (who did not score very well on these tests) were given jobs over white males that scored higher, ruled in favor of affirmative action but position and condition of the job seeker taken into account, must prove that these minorities are doing their job well and prove that tests are necessary.
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