Chapter 1 & 2 Chemistry

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Chapter 1 & 2 Chemistry
2014-03-09 16:34:31
Chapter 1 Chem Review
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  1. Chemistry
    Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
  2. Chemical
    A chemical is any substance that has a definite composition or is used or produced in a chemical process.
  3. Basic Research
    Basic research is carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge.
  4. Applied Research
    Applied research is carried out to solve practical problems.
  5. Technological Developments
    Technological developments involves the use of existing knowledge to make life easier or more convenient.
  6. Organic Chemistry
    The study of most carbon containing compounds.
  7. Inorganic Chemistry
    The study of non-organic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals (organmetallics).
  8. Physical Chemistry
    The study of properties and changes of matter in relation to energy
  9. Analytical Chemistry
    The identification of the components and composition of material.
  10. Biochemistry
    The study of substances and processes occuring in living things.
  11. Theorectical Chemistry
    The use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds.
  12. Mass
    Mass is a measure of the amount of matter. Mass is the measurement you make using a balance.
  13. Matter
    Is anything that has mass and takes up space.
  14. Chemical Properties
    Chemial properties refers to a substance's ability to undergo changes that alter its composition and identity.
  15. Element
    An element is composed of one kind of atom.
  16. Compounds
    Compounds are made from two or more elements in fixed proportions. Example; H2O.
  17. Characterstic Properties
    All substances have characteristic properties that enable chmist to tell the substance apart and to seperate substances.
  18. Physical Changes
    Physical changes do not involve changes in identity of a substance.
  19. States of matter
    The three major stages of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
  20. Chemical Change
    In a chemical change, or a chemical reaction, the identity of the substance changes.
  21. Energy Changes
    Energy changes accompy physical and chemical changes. Energy may be released or absorbed, but it is neither created nor desrtoyed.
  22. Matter Classification
    Can it be seperated? Yes; Mixture

    Can it be seperated? No; Pure Substance
  23. Atom
    An element is a pure substance that can not be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made up of one type of atom.
  24. Element
    An element is a pure substance that can not be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made up of one type of atom.
  25. Extensive Properties
    Extensive Properties depend on the amount of matter that is present. Such properties include volume, mass, and the amount of energy in a substance.
  26. Intensive Properties
    Intensive Properties do not depend on the amount of matter present. Such properties include the melting point, boiling point, density, and ability to conduct electricity and to transfer energy as heat.
  27. Physical Property
    A physical property is a characteristic that can be observedd or measured without changing the identity of a substance. Physical properties describe the substance itself. Examples of physical properties are melting point and boiling point.
  28. Change of state
    A change of state is a physical change of a substance from one state to another.
  29. Solid
    Matter in the solid state has definte volume and definte shape.
  30. Liquid
    Matter in the liquid state has definte volume but an undefinte shape.
  31. Gas
    Matter in gas state has neither definite shape or volume.
  32. Plasma
    Plasma is an important fourth state of matter. Plasma is a high temperature physical state of matterin which atoms lose most of their electrons, particles that make up atoms. Plasma is found in fluorescent light bulbs.
  33. Reactants
    The substances that react in a chemical change are called reactants.
  34. Products
    The substance that are formed by the chemical change are called the products.
  35. Mixture
    A mixture is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each which retains its own identity and properties.
  36. Homogeneous
    Homogeneous mixtures are uniform in composition. They have the same proportion of components throughout. Homogenous mixtures are called solutions. Example; Salt Water Solution
  37. Heterogenous
    Heterogenous mixtures are not uniform throughout. For example in a mixture in clay and water, heavier clay particles concentrate near the bottom of the container.
  38. Pure Substance
    Any sample of a pure substance is homogenous. A pure substance has fixed composition and differs from a mixture.
  39. Groups
    The vertical columns of the peroidic table are called families.
  40. Periods
    The horizontal rows of elements in periodic table are called periods.
  41. Metals
    Characteristics; shininess, metallic luster, the ability to conduct energy and transfer. Thus metals are good good electrical and heat conductor. Most metals have malleabilty (the ability to be hammered into thin sheets). They are also ductile meaning they can be rolled into wires.
  42. Nonmetals
    A nonmetal is a poor conductor of heat and electricty. Many nonmetals are gases at room temp. And if theyare solid they tend to be brittle.
  43. Metalloids
    Found between nonmetals and metals. A metalloid is an element that has some of the characteristics of nonmetals. All metalloids are solids at room temp. Metalloids are also known as semiconductors.
  44. Noble Gases
    The elements in Group 18 of the peroidic table are the noble gases. These elements are generally unreactive. 

    Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, & Radon.
  45. Scientific Method
    The scientific method is a logical apporach to solving problems that lend themselves to investigation.
  46. Hypothesis
    A hypothesis is a testable statement that serves as the basis for predictions and further experiments.
  47. Theory
    A theory is a broad generalization that explains a body of known facts or phenomena.
  48. Observing
    The use of the senses to obatin information.
  49. Qualitative
    Numerical data 25.7g
  50. Quantitave
    Non numerical datea such as the fact that the sky is blue.
  51. System
    A system is a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation.
  52. Controls
    During testing, the expermential conditons that stay constant are called controls.
  53. Variable
    During testing, any condition that changes os called the variable.
  54. Model
    An explanation of why a phenmoena occur and how data or events are related.
  55. SI System Base Units
    • Length-Meters
    • Temp.-Kelvin
    • Mass-Kilogram
    • Time-Seconds
    • Mole-Amount of substance
    • Ampere-Electric Current
    • Candela-Luminous Intensisty
  56. Weight
    Weight is a measure of the gravitational pull on matter; Measured on a spring scale.
  57. Derived SI Units
    Square Meter (Area); Cubic Meter (Volume)
  58. Density
  59. Conversion Factors
    Conversion factors are used to convert from one unit to another.
  60. Quantity
    A quantity is something that has magnitude, size, or amount.
  61. SI Unit
    Le Systeme International d'Unites, abbrievated SI.
  62. Mass
    Measured in Kilogram; does not depend on gravity; Measured on a scale.
  63. Length
  64. Derived Units (def)
    They are produced by dividing or multyplying standard units.
  65. Volume
    The amount of space occupied by an object.
  66. Dimensional Analysis
    Is a mathmateical technique that allows you to use units to solve problems involving measurements.
  67. Accuracy
    Accuracy refers to the closeness of a measurment to the correct or accepted value.
  68. Precison
    Precison refers to the closness of a set of measurements of the same quanity made in the same way.
  69. Percentage Error
    Percentage error is the difference between the experimental and the accpeted valuethat is divided by the accepted value and then multiplied by 100.
  70. Sig Figs.
    Sig Figs in a number consist of all digits known with certanity plus one final digit, which is uncertain.
  71. Direct Proportions
    Two quantites are directly proportions to each other if dividing one bu the other gives a constant value.
  72. Inverse Proportions
    Two quantites are inversely proportional to each other if their products have a constant value.