Atoms Elements Minerals Rocks: Earth's Building Materials

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Atoms Elements Minerals Rocks: Earth's Building Materials
2014-01-28 20:26:45
Geology Rocks Atoms Elements Minerals Earth
Atoms, Elements, Minerals, Rocks: Earth's Building Materials Chapter 3
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  1. What is an Atom?
    Smallest individual particle retaining properties of an element.
  2. What is an Element?
    Fundamental substances into which matter can be broken down chemically.
  3. What is a Mineral?
    • Naturally formed inorganic solid that has a specific chemical composition and a distinct crystal structure.
    • Composed of elements.
  4. What is a Rock?
    • Naturally formed
    • Coherent mass of one or more minerals
    • Sometimes including organic debris
  5. What are the 5 properties that a Mineral must have?
    • Naturally formed
    • Inorganic
    • Solid
    • Specific Chemical Composition
    • Characteristic Crystal Structure
  6. What is a Mineraloid?
    Lack specific composition and/or characteristic crystal structure.
  7. What is the Nucleus made of?
    • Protons and Neutrons
    • very little volume but nearly all mass of atom
  8. Is a Proton Positive or Negative or Neutral?
  9. Is a Neutron Positive or Negative or Neutral?
  10. Is an Electron Positive or Negative or Neutral?
  11. The total number or Protons in a nucleus indicates ___________.
    the atoms Atomic Number
  12. The Total number of Protons plus Neutrons is the _____________.
    Mass Number
  13. What are Isotopes?
    Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
  14. Electrons move around the nucleus in complex 3-D patterns called _________.
  15. ___________ are groupings of orbitals.
    Energy-level shells
  16. What is an Ion?
    Atom with excessive positive or negative charge caused by electron transfer.
  17. What is a + charged Ion called?
  18. What is a - charged Ion called?
  19. What is a Compound?
    • An Atom of 2 or more elements combined in a specific ration. 
    • i.e. Water
  20. What are the 4 bonds we talked about in class?
    • Ionic
    • Covalent
    • Metallic
    • van der Waals
  21. What are Ionic bonds?
    • Electrostatic attractions between + & - charged particles
    • Weak
  22. What are Covalent bonds?
    • Sharing of electrons by two adjacent atoms
    • Strong
  23. What is a Metallic bond?
    • Closely packed atoms
    • Electrons shared between several atoms
  24. What is a van der Waals bond?
    Weak secondary attraction between certain molecules.
  25. What is a Complex Ion?
    Two or more ions that act as a single entity.
  26. What is a Crystal Structure?
    Geometric patterns of atoms in a solid.
  27. What is a Crystalline?
    Has a crystal structure
  28. What is Amorphous?
    Lack of crystal structures
  29. What is Ionic Substitution?
    Ions with similar sizes and charges can substitute for each other.
  30. What are the 7 properties of minerals?
    • Crystal Form
    • Cleavage
    • Luster
    • Color
    • Streak
    • Hardness
    • Density
  31. What is Crystal Form?
    • Growth Habit
    • Geometric arrangement of crystal faces
  32. What is a Polymorph?
    2 or more minerals with the same composition but different crystal structures.
  33. What is Cleavage?
    Mineral's tendency to break in preferred directions along planar surfaces.
  34. What is Luster?
    Quality and intensity of light reflected from mineral.
  35. What is Color?
    Often striking, but unreliable means of identification.
  36. What is Streak?
    Thin layer of powdered mineral made by rubbing it on non-glazed porcelain.
  37. What is hardness?
    Mineral's relative resistance to scratching.
  38. What is Density?
    • Mass/Unit Volume
    • Specific gravity - ration of mass of substance to mass of equal volume of water
  39. What is the most common Element?
  40. What is the Second most common Element?
  41. What are Silicates?
    • Minerals that contain Silicate Anion (Si04)-4
    • Most abundant group
  42. What is the most abundant group of Minerals?
  43. What is a Silicate Tetrahedron?
    • Four oxygen atoms (Large) surrounding a silicon atom (small)
    • Oxygen atoms must bond with other cations and/or bond with 2 silicon atoms at one time
  44. During a Silicate Tetrahedron what must oxygen atoms bond with?
    • Oxygen atoms must bond with:
    • other cations and/or
    • bond with 2 silicon atoms at one time
  45. What is Polymerization?
    Process of linking silicate tetrahedra.
  46. Olivine group has what kind of Tetrahedra?
    Isolated Silicate
  47. What is distinctive about the Olivine group?
    Green color
  48. What kind of tetrahedra does the Garnet group have?
  49. What kind of tetrahedra does the Pyroxene group have?
    Single Chains
  50. What kind of tetrahedra does the Amphibole group have?
    Double chains
  51. What are the 3 main types of Rocks?
    • Igneous
    • Sedimentary
    • Metamorphic
  52. How are Igneous rocks formed?
    From cooling and solidification of magma
  53. How are sedimentary rocks formed?
    From consolidation of sediment
  54. How are Metamorphic rocks formed?
    It's original form has been altered by high temperatures and/or high presser
  55. Explain the Rock Cycle
    Exposed rocks are transformed into sediment --> Sediment is buried and compacted, becoming sedimentary rock --> deeper burial turns it into metamorphic rock --> even deeper burial may cause rock to melt, forming magma from which igneous rocks will form