Atoms Elements Minerals Rocks: Earth's Building Materials
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What is an Atom?
Smallest individual particle retaining properties of an element.
What is an Element?
Fundamental substances into which matter can be broken down chemically.
What is a Mineral?
- Naturally formed inorganic solid that has a specific chemical composition and a distinct crystal structure.
- Composed of elements.
What is a Rock?
- Naturally formed
- Coherent mass of one or more minerals
- Sometimes including organic debris
What are the 5 properties that a Mineral must have?
- Naturally formed
- Specific Chemical Composition
- Characteristic Crystal Structure
What is a Mineraloid?
Lack specific composition and/or characteristic crystal structure.
What is the Nucleus made of?
- Protons and Neutrons
- very little volume but nearly all mass of atom
Is a Proton Positive or Negative or Neutral?
Is a Neutron Positive or Negative or Neutral?
Is an Electron Positive or Negative or Neutral?
The total number or Protons in a nucleus indicates ___________.
the atoms Atomic Number
The Total number of Protons plus Neutrons is the _____________.
What are Isotopes?
Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Electrons move around the nucleus in complex 3-D patterns called _________.
___________ are groupings of orbitals.
What is an Ion?
Atom with excessive positive or negative charge caused by electron transfer.
What is a + charged Ion called?
What is a - charged Ion called?
What is a Compound?
- An Atom of 2 or more elements combined in a specific ration.
- i.e. Water
What are the 4 bonds we talked about in class?
- van der Waals
What are Ionic bonds?
- Electrostatic attractions between + & - charged particles
What are Covalent bonds?
- Sharing of electrons by two adjacent atoms
What is a Metallic bond?
- Closely packed atoms
- Electrons shared between several atoms
What is a van der Waals bond?
Weak secondary attraction between certain molecules.
What is a Complex Ion?
Two or more ions that act as a single entity.
What is a Crystal Structure?
Geometric patterns of atoms in a solid.
What is a Crystalline?
Has a crystal structure
What is Amorphous?
Lack of crystal structures
What is Ionic Substitution?
Ions with similar sizes and charges can substitute for each other.
What are the 7 properties of minerals?
- Crystal Form
What is Crystal Form?
- Growth Habit
- Geometric arrangement of crystal faces
What is a Polymorph?
2 or more minerals with the same composition but different crystal structures.
What is Cleavage?
Mineral's tendency to break in preferred directions along planar surfaces.
What is Luster?
Quality and intensity of light reflected from mineral.
What is Color?
Often striking, but unreliable means of identification.
What is Streak?
Thin layer of powdered mineral made by rubbing it on non-glazed porcelain.
What is hardness?
Mineral's relative resistance to scratching.
What is Density?
- Mass/Unit Volume
- Specific gravity - ration of mass of substance to mass of equal volume of water
What is the most common Element?
What is the Second most common Element?
What are Silicates?
- Minerals that contain Silicate Anion (Si04)-4Most abundant group
What is the most abundant group of Minerals?
What is a Silicate Tetrahedron?
- Four oxygen atoms (Large) surrounding a silicon atom (small)
- Oxygen atoms must bond with other cations and/or bond with 2 silicon atoms at one time
During a Silicate Tetrahedron what must oxygen atoms bond with?
- Oxygen atoms must bond with:
- other cations and/or
- bond with 2 silicon atoms at one time
What is Polymerization?
Process of linking silicate tetrahedra.
Olivine group has what kind of Tetrahedra?
What is distinctive about the Olivine group?
What kind of tetrahedra does the Garnet group have?
What kind of tetrahedra does the Pyroxene group have?
What kind of tetrahedra does the Amphibole group have?
What are the 3 main types of Rocks?
How are Igneous rocks formed?
From cooling and solidification of magma
How are sedimentary rocks formed?
From consolidation of sediment
How are Metamorphic rocks formed?
It's original form has been altered by high temperatures and/or high presser
Explain the Rock Cycle
Exposed rocks are transformed into sediment --> Sediment is buried and compacted, becoming sedimentary rock --> deeper burial turns it into metamorphic rock --> even deeper burial may cause rock to melt, forming magma from which igneous rocks will form
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