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What is happening with the demand for personal trainers?
US Dept of Labor estimates demand for personal trainers expected to increase faster than the average of all occupations
What is the cause of increased demand for personal trainers?
- -escalation of obesity, diabetes & various chronic diseases
- -escalation of obesity, diabetes & various chronic diseases
- -advancing age of Americans
- -health clubs rely on them for their largest source of non dues revenue
What are some of the fastest growing areas for growth of personal trainers
- Well being
What is the history of fitness & personal training 1950-1960
- male dominated gyms
- free weights (body builders)
- Strength (power lifters)
- explosive strength (Olympic lifters)
Who was Jack Lalanne?
1st fitness TV, @21 in 1936 opened his 1st health club, invented cable pulley weight training system & smith weight lifting machine
What is the history of fitness & personal training 1960-1970
- Women's fitness centers (figure salons) which focused on weight loss/spot reduction. Passive
- JFK-Presidents Council on Physical fitness, encouraged jogging/running boom
- 1966 Bill Bowerman wrote the book, Jogging,
- 1965 Joe Gold opened Gold's Gym, Pumping Iron -Arnold Schwarzenegger, largest chain of coed gyms
History of personal training 1970-1980
- Socially acceptable
- Social interaction & health
- lack of knowledg or assessment for medical history, risk factors, muscle imbalance & goals
What is Muscle Imbalance
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint
What is going on with chronic diseases
Asthma, cancer, diabetes & heart disease are rising dramatically in US
Chronic diseases are a result of:
Largely preventable factors such as poor lifestyle choices, lack of access or emphasis on preventative care
What is the result of chronic disease?
Leading cause of death & disability in the United States. Accounts for 70% of deaths in the US
What is the direct result of chronic disease?
- -Worsening health
- -worsening quality of life
- -eventual permanent disability
- -reduced lifespan
What are the indirect results of chronic disease
- -toll on nation's economy
- -lower productivity
- -slowing economic growth as a result of escalating corporate health care costs
- -75 cents of every $ or about $1.7 trillion annually goes to treating chronic disease
What does the US centers for disease control & prevention say about chronic disease?
- Chronic disease responsible for 5 of 6 leading causes of death in US in 2006
- 57% cardiovascular-80% of those prevented by healthy lifestyle
2010 cost of direct & indirect costs cardiovascular disease est @ 503.2 billion
What is obesity
Chronic condition associated w/ cardiovascular disease. Condition of being considerably overweight - BMI of 30 or greater, @ least 30 lbs overweight
What is the desirable BMI for adults 20 & older
between 18.5 & 24.9.
How many americans are overweight
66% of americans are overweight. 34% are obese = 72 million americans
How many overweight youth 2-19 years old?
More than 9 million are obese or overweight. Experts predict 1 in 4 kids will be overweight by 2015
Person with a BMI of 25-29.9 or who is between 25-30 lbs over recommended weight for their height
What is associated with excessive body weight?
- Cardiovascular disease
- type 2 diabetes
- high cholesterol
- osteo arthritis
- some cancers
- pregnancy complications
- shortened life expectancy
- decreased quality of life
How is BMI calculated?
BMI= 703 x weight(lb)/height to the second power (inches)
Why has cholesterol received so much attention?
Because of its direct relationship with cardiovascular disease and obesity
What are blood lipids
Also known as cholesterol and triglycerides, blood lipids are carried in the bloodstream by protein molecules known as high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL)
What is "good" cholesterol
high density lipoproteins
What is "bad" cholesterol
What is healthy total cholesterol level?
less than 200 mg/dL
What is borderline high cholesterol and high risk cholesterol
- 200-239 mg/dL is borderline
- over 240 mg/dL is high risk
How many adults have total cholesterol levels over 200 mg/dL
What is diabetes mellitus
A condition in which blood glucose or "blood sugar" is unable to enter cells either because the pancreas is unable to produce insulin or the cells have become insulin resistant
What is type 1 diabetes?
Often called juvenile diabetes. result of the pancrease not producing insulin. blood sugar is not optimally delivered into the cells, resulting in hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar
What is type 2 diabetes?
associated with obesity, particularly abdominal obesity and accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes. Usually produce insulin but cells are resistant and do not allow insulin to bring adequate amounts of blood sugar (glucose) into the cell
What are resulting problems associated with improperly managed diabetes?
nerve damage, vision loss, kidney damage, secual dysfunction, and decreased immune function.
How many of new type 2 diabetes are attributed to children?
How many Americans are living longer?
US Census Bureau reported that the proportion of the population older than 65 is projected to increase from 12.4% in 2000 to 19.6% in 2030, individuals over 80 from 9.3 million in 2000 to 19.5 million in 2030.
What is the result of Americans living longer?
Increased in chronic diseases, approx 80% of all persons older than 65 have at least one chronic condition, 50% have at least 2. 1 in 5 adults report having doctor diagnosed arthritis, leading cause of disability
What does the World Health Organization say about physical activity
Lack of physical activity as a significant contributor to the rish factors for several chronic diseases.
What is the minimum recommended level of physical activity
30 or more minutes of moderate physical activity 5 or more days per week
What is the OPT mode?
Conceptualized as a training program for a society that has more structural imbalances and susceptibility to injury than ever before. Process of programming that systematically progresses ANY client to ANY goal.
What is evidence of muscular dysfunction and increased injury
- Low back pain
- knee pain
- musculoskeletal injuries
What is the basis for the OPT model
deconditioned individuals who have been sedentary. Must address factors such as appropriate forms of flexibility, increasing strength and endurance, training in different types of environments
What is integrated training?
a concept that incorporates all forms of training in an integrated fashion as part of a progressive system. Includes flexibility training, cardiorespiratory training; core training; balance training; plyometric (reactive) training, speed, agility and quickness, resistance training
What are the physiologic benefits of the OPT model
- -Improves cardiorespiratory efficiency
- -Enhances beneficial endocrine (hormone ) and serum lipid (cholesterol) adaptations
- -Increases metabolic efficiency (metabolism)
- -Increases bone density
- -Decreases body fat
- -Increases lean body mass (muscle)
- -Increases tissue tensile strength (tendons, ligaments, muscles)
What are the performance Benefits
What are the 5 phases of the OPT model?
- Stabilization endurance
- Strength endurance
- Maximal strength
What are the 3 levels of training with the OPT model?
- Stabilization level
- Strength level
- Stabalization level
What is the one phase of stabilization?
What is the main focus of stabilization endurance training?
Increase muscular endurance and stability while developing optimal neuromuscular efficiency (coordination)
What is the progression basis for Stabilization Endurance?
Proprioceptively based. That means that difficulty is increased by introducing a greater challenge to the balance and stabilzation systems of the body (versus simply increasing the load)
Stabilization & neuromuscular efficiency can only be obtained by:
having the appropriate combination of proper alignment (posture) of the human movement system (kinetic chain) and the stabilization strength necessary to maintain that alignment.
What is the goal of stabilization endurance for the client?
Increase the client's ability to stabilize the joints and maintain optimal posture
Stabilization training must be done before strength and power training. Why?
Research has shown that inefficient stabilization can negatively affect the way force is produced by the muscles, increase stress at the joints, overload the soft tissues, and, eventually cause injury.
By performing exercises in a proprioceptively enriched environment (controlled, unstable)
the body is forced to recruit more muscles to stabilize itself. In doing so, more calories are potentially expended.
What are the goals of Stabilization endurance training?
- Improve muscular endurance
- enhance joint stability
- increase flexibility
- Enhance control of posture
- Improve neuromuscular efficiency (balance, stabilization, muscular coordination)
What are the Training Strategies of Stabilization endurance training?
Training in unstable, yet controllable environments (proprioceptively enriched)
Low loads, high repetitions
What is meant by Prime mover?
The muscle that acts as the initial and main source of motive power
What is the emphasis of the second phase of OPT, the strength level?
Maintain stabilization endurance while increasing prime mover strength. This is also the level of training an individual will progress to if his or her goals are hypertrophy or maximal strength
increasing muscle size
lifting heavy loads
What are the phases of the strength level of the OPT model?
- Strength endurance
- Maximal strength
What is the goal of strength endurance training?
- -improve stabilization endurance and increase prim mover strength
- -improve overall work capacity
- -enhance joint stabilization
- -increase lean body mass
What are the training strategies of strength endurance training
- -Moderate loads and repetitions
How is enhancement of stabilization endurance and increase of prime mover strength achieved?
By performing two exercises in a superset sequence with similar joint dynamics
What is a superset sequence?
Back to back without rest, first exercise is a traditional strength exercise performed in a stable environment (e.g. bench press), the second is a stabilization exercise performed in a less stable (yet controllable) environment (e.g.stability ball push up)
What is the principal behind the superset?
To work the prim movers predominantly in the first exercise to elicit prime mover strength, then immediately follow with an exercise that challenges the stabilization muscles, producing an increased ability to maintain postural stabilization and dynamic joint stabilization.
What is the goal of hypertrophy training
Achieve optimal levels of muscular hypertrophy (increase muscle size)
What are the training strategies?
High volume, moderate to high loads, moderate or low repetitions
What are the goals of maximum strength training?
- -Increase motor unit recruitment
- -Increase frequency of motor unit recruitment
- -Improve peak force
What are maximum strength training strategies?
High loads, low repetitions (1-5) longer rest periods